Many researchers involved in evaluation research have in recent years begun to develop similar types of input-output-outcome models. For example, see David Greytak, Donald Phares, and Elaine Morley, Municipal Output and Performance in New York City (Lexington, Massachusetts; Lexington Books, 1976); and A. Allan Schmid, “Conceptualization of Government Program Impacts: Inputs vs. Impact Budgets” (Agricultural Economics Report No. 311, East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University, September 1976).
Viewing citizens as coproducers of police (and other social) services is a rather novel and Important aspect of our approach. We have discussed this coproduction in several recent works including: Vincent Ostrom and Elinor Ostrom, “Public Goods and Public Choices,” in E. S. Savas, ed., Alternatives for Delivering Public Services; Toward Improved Performance (Boulder. Colorado: Westren Press, 1977), 7–49; Gordon P. Whitaker, “Size and Effectiveness in the Delivery of Human Services” (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University, Department of Policies Science, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Technical Report T–17); Frances P. Bish and Nancy M. Neuberat, “Citizen Contributions to Community Safety and Security,” In Mark S. Rosentraub, ed., Financing Local Government: New Approaches to Old Problems (Fort Collins, Colorado: Western Social Science Association, 1977). See also the article by Stephen L. Percy, “Conceptualizing and Measuring Citizen Coproduction of Community Safety,” in this symposium.
These authors have used the concepts of inputs, outputs, and outcomes to operationally four evaluative criteria: effectiveness, equity, efficiency, und responsiveness. See Evaluating Police Organization,” Public Productivity Review (forthcoming, Spring 1979)., , , and , “