SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

ABSTRACT

The literature on the provision and distribution of urban public services has recently stressed the study of impacts rather than outputs. Impacts are conventionally conceived as the final stage of an orderly production process. Benefits are produced only after impacts are achieved. This paper argues, to the contrary, that costs and benefits stem from each stage of the public service production process. Consequently, a focus on the impact stage alone can be grossly misleading.