Biometrical Modeling of Twin and Family Data Using Standard Mixed Model Software
Article first published online: 2 MAY 2007
2007, The International Biometric Society
Volume 64, Issue 1, pages 280–288, March 2008
How to Cite
Rabe-Hesketh, S., Skrondal, A. and Gjessing, H. K. (2008), Biometrical Modeling of Twin and Family Data Using Standard Mixed Model Software. Biometrics, 64: 280–288. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2007.00803.x
- Issue published online: 26 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 2 MAY 2007
- Received November 2005. Revised December 2006. Accepted January 2007.
- Biometrical genetics;
- family design;
- generalized linear mixed model;
- multilevel model;
- twin design
Summary Biometrical genetic modeling of twin or other family data can be used to decompose the variance of an observed response or ‘phenotype’ into genetic and environmental components. Convenient parameterizations requiring few random effects are proposed, which allow such models to be estimated using widely available software for linear mixed models (continuous phenotypes) or generalized linear mixed models (categorical phenotypes). We illustrate the proposed approach by modeling family data on the continuous phenotype birth weight and twin data on the dichotomous phenotype depression. The example data sets and commands for Stata and R/S-PLUS are available at the Biometrics website.