Estimation and Inference for the Causal Effect of Receiving Treatment on a Multinomial Outcome: An Alternative Approach


  • Stuart G. Baker

    1. Biometry Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, EPN 3131, 6130 Executive Blvd MSC 7354, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7354, U.S.A.
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Summary Recently, Cheng (2009, Biometrics65, 96–103) proposed a model for the causal effect of receiving treatment when there is all-or-none compliance in one randomization group, with maximum likelihood estimation based on convex programming. We discuss an alternative approach that involves a model for all-or-none compliance in two randomization groups and estimation via a perfect fit or an expectation–maximization algorithm for count data. We believe this approach is easier to implement, which would facilitate the reproduction of calculations.