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Robust Classification of Functional and Quantitative Image Data Using Functional Mixed Models




Summary This article introduces new methods for performing classification of complex, high-dimensional functional data using the functional mixed model (FMM) framework. The FMM relates a functional response to a set of predictors through functional fixed and random effects, which allows it to account for various factors and between-function correlations. The methods include training and prediction steps. In the training steps we train the FMM model by treating class designation as one of the fixed effects, and in the prediction steps we classify the new objects using posterior predictive probabilities of class. Through a Bayesian scheme, we are able to adjust for factors affecting both the functions and the class designations. While the methods can be used in any FMM framework, we provide details for two specific Bayesian approaches: the Gaussian, wavelet-based FMM (G-WFMM) and the robust, wavelet-based FMM (R-WFMM). Both methods perform modeling in the wavelet space, which yields parsimonious representations for the functions, and can naturally adapt to local features and complex nonstationarities in the functions. The R-WFMM allows potentially heavier tails for features of the functions indexed by particular wavelet coefficients, leading to a down-weighting of outliers that makes the method robust to outlying functions or regions of functions. The models are applied to a pancreatic cancer mass spectroscopy data set and compared with other recently developed functional classification methods.