SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • American Water Works Association (AWWA). 1979. Committee, viruses in drinking water. J AWWA 71: 441.
  • Andersen FR, Birkeland FG, Bo G, Eidsto A, Bruu AL. 1996. Outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis caused by a Norwalk-like virus. Evaluation of methods for confirmation of the etiology in suspected viral gastroenteritis. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 116: 33253328.
  • Ando T, Mulders MN, Lewis DC, Estes MK, Monroe SS, Glass RI. 1994. Comparison of the polymerase region of small round structured virus strains previously classified in 3 antigenic types by solid-phase immune electron-microscopy. Arch Virol 135: 217226.
  • Ando T, Monroe SS, Gentsch JR, Jin Q, Lewis DC, Glass RI. 1995. Detection and differentiation of antigenically distinct small round-structured viruses (Norwalk-like viruses) by reverse transcription-PCR and Southern hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 33: 6471.
  • Andreoletti L, Hober D, Belaich S, Lobert PE, Dewilde A, Wattre P. 1996. Rapid detection of enterovirus in clinical specimens using PCR and microwell capture hybridization assay. J Virol Methods 62: 110.
  • Ansari SA, Sattar SA, Springhtorpe VS, Wells GA, Tostowaryk W. 1988. Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to animate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. J Clin Microbiol 26: 15131518.
  • Ansari SA, Sattar SA, Springhtorpe VS, Wells GA, Tostowaryk W. 1989. In vivo protocol for testing efficacy of hand-washing agents against viruses and bacteria: experiments with rotavirus and E. coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 31133118.
  • Appleton H. 1987. Small round viruses: classification and role in food-borne infections. In: BockG, WhelanJ, editors. Novel diarrhoea viruses. New York : John Wiley and Sons. p 120125.
  • Appleton H. 1994. Norwalk virus and the small round viruses causing foodborne gastroenteritis. In: HuiYH, GorhamJR, MurrellKD, CliverDO, editors. Foodborne disease handbook: diseases caused by viruses, parasites, and fungi. Vol. 2. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc. p 5779.
  • Appleton H, Pereira MS. 1977. A possible virus aetiology in outbreaks of food poisoning from cockles. Lancet 1(8015): 780781.
  • Arnal C, Ferre-Aubineau V, Besse B, Mignotte B, Schwartzbrod L, Billaudel S. 1999. Comparison of 7 RNA extraction methods on stool and shellfish samples prior to hepatitis A virus amplification. J Virol Methods 77: 1726.
  • Atmar RL, Metcalf TG, Neill FH, Estes MK. 1993. Detection of enteric viruses in oysters by using the polymerase chain reaction. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 631635.
  • Atmar RL, Neill FH, Romalde JL, Le Guyader F, Woodley CM, Metcalf TG, Estes MK. 1995. Detection of Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus in shellfish tissues with the PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 30143018.
  • Bassler HA, Flood SJA, Livak KJ, Marmaro J, Knorr R., Batt CA. 1995. Use of fluorogenic probe in a PCR-based assay for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 37243728.
  • Battegay M, Gust ID, Feinstone SM. 1995. Hepatitis A virus. In: MandellGL, BennettJL, DolinR, editors. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. New York : Churchill-Livingstone p. 1636.
  • Bean NH, Griffin PM. 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973–1987: pathogens, vehicles, and trends. J Food Protect 53: 804817.
  • Bean NH, Griffin PM, Goulding JS, Ivey CB. 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks, 5-y summary, 1983–1987. J Food Protect 53: 711728.
  • Becker KM, Moe CL, Southwick KL, MacCormack JN. 2000. Transmission of Norwalk virus during a football game. N Engl J Med 343: 12231227.
  • Bej AK, Mahbubani MH, Atlas RM. 1991. Amplification of nucleic acids by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other methods and their applications. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 26: 301334.
  • Berg DE, Kohn MA, Farley TA, McFarland LM. 2000. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J Infect Dis 181(S2): S381386.
  • Berke T, Golding B, Jiang X, Cubitt WD, Wolfaardt M, Smith AW, Matson DO. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the Caliciviruses. J Med Virol 52: 419424.
  • Beutler E, Gelbart J, Kulh W. 1990. Interference of heparine with polymerase chain reaction. Biotechniques 9: 166.
  • Bidawid S, Farber JM, Sattar SA. 2000a. Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 27592763.
  • Bidawid S, Farber JM, Sattar SA, Hayward S. 2000b. Heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus in dairy foods. J Food Prot 63: 522528.
  • Bishop RF, Davidson GP, Holmes IH, Ruck BJ. 1973. Virus particles in epithelial cells of duodenal mucosa from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Lancet 2: 12811283.
  • Blacklow NR, Cukor G, Bedigian MK, Echeverria P, Greenberg HB, Schreiber DS, Trier JS. 1979. Immune response and prevalence of antibody to Norwalk enteritis virus as determined by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 10: 903909.
  • Boom R, Sol CJ, Salimans MM, Jansen CL, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, Van Der Noordaa J. 1990. Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol 28: 495503.
  • Bosch A, Shields PA. 1987. Survival of hepatitis A virus and poliovirus in seawater and marine sediments. Abstr Ann Mtg Am Soc Microbiol. p 295.
  • Bosch A, Gajardo R, Diez JM, Pinto RM. 1996. Non isotopic automatable molecular procedures for the detection of enteroviruses. Mol Cell Probes 10: 8189.
  • Brinker JP, Blacklow NR, Estes MK, Moe CL, Schwab KJ, Herrmann JE. 1998. Detection of Norwalk virus and other genogroup 1 human caliciviruses by a monoclonal antibody, recombinant-antigen-based immunoglobulin M capture enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 36: 10641069.
  • Bryan FL. 1995. Hazard analysis: the link between epidemiology and microbiology. J Food Protect 59: 102107.
  • Caul EO. 1987. Astroviruses: human and animal. Ciba Found Symp 128: 102107.
  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1997. Viral gastroenteritis associated with eating oysters - Louisiana, December 1996 - January 1997. MMWR 46: 10091012.
  • Chan TY. 1995. Shellfish-borne illnesses. A Hong Kong perspective. Trop Geogr Med 47: 305307.
  • Chen S, Xu R, Yee A, Wu KY, Wang CN, Read S, De Grandis SA. 1998. An automated fluorescent PCR method for the detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in foods. Appl Environ Micro 64: 42104116.
  • Chiba S. 1996. Immunological aspects of viral gastroenteritis. In: ParadiseLJ, BendinelliM, FriedmanH, editors. Enteric infections and immunity. New York : Plenum Press. p 187206.
  • Chung H, Jaykus LA, Sobsey MD. 1996. Detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by in vivo and in vitro amplification of nucleic acids. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 37723778.
  • Ciocca M. 2000. Clinical course and consequences of hepatitis A infection. Vaccine 18: Suppl 1: S714.
  • Cliver DO. 1994a. Viral foodborne disease agents of concern. J Food Protect 57: 176178.
  • Cliver DO. 1994b. Other foodborne viral diseases. In: HuiYH, GorhamJR, MurrellKD, CliverDO, editors. Foodborne disease handbook: diseases caused by viruses, parasites, and fungi. Vol. 2. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc. p 137143.
  • Cliver DO. 1995. Detection and control of foodborne viruses. Trends in Food Sci Technol 6: 353358.
  • Cliver DO. 1997. Virus transmission via food. Food Technol 51(4): 7178.
  • Cliver DO, Ellender RD, Sobsey MD. 1983. Methods to detect viruses in foods: testing and interpretation of results. J Food Protect 46: 345357.
  • Croci L, Ciccozzi M, De Medici D, Di Pasquale S, Fiore A, Mele A, Toti L. 1999. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus in heat-treated mussels. J Appl Microbiol 87: 884888.
  • Cromeans T, Sobsey MD, Fields HA. 1987. Development of a plaque assays for a cytopathic, rapidly replicating isolate of hepatitis A virus. J Med Virol 22: 4556.
  • Cromeans T, Nainan OV, Fields HA, Favorov MO, Margolis HS. 1994. Hepatitis A and E viruses. In: HuiYH, GorhamJR, MurrellKD, CliverDO, editors. Foodborne disease handbook: diseases caused by viruses, parasites, and fungi. Vol. 2. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc. p 156.
  • Cukor G, Blacklow NR. 1984. Human viral gastroenteritis. Microbiol Rev 48: 157179.
  • Dalton CB, Haddix A, Hoffman RE, Mast EE. 1996. The cost of a food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A in Denver, Colo. Arch Intern Med 156: 10131016.
  • De Boer E, Beumer RR. 1999. Methodology for detection and typing of foodborne microorganisms. Int J Food Microbiol 50: 119130.
  • De Leon R, Matsui SM, Baric RS, Herrmann JE, Blacklow NR, Greenberg HB, Sobsey MD. 1992. Detection of Norwalk virus in stool specimens by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nonradioactive oligoprobes. J Clin Microbiol 30: 31513157.
  • De Leon R, Jaykus LA. 1997. Detection of the presence of bacteria and viruses in shellfish. In: HurstCJ, KnudsenGR, McInerneyMJ, StetzenbachLD, WalterWV, editors. Manual of environmental microbiology. Washington , D.C. : ASM Press. p 203212.
  • Demeke T, Adams RP. 1992. The effects of plant polysaccharides and buffer additives on PCR. Biotechniques 12: 332333.
  • Deng MY, Day SP, Cliver DO. 1994. Detection of hepatitis A virus in environmental samples by antigen-capture PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 19271933.
  • Denis F. 1973. Coxsackie virus group A in oysters and mussels. Lancet 1: 1262.
  • Desenclos JC, Klontz KC, Wilder MH, Nainan OV, Margolis HS, Gunn RA. 1991. A multistate outbreak of hepatitis A caused by the consumption of raw oysters. Am J Public Health 81: 12681272.
  • DiGirolamo R, Liston J, Matches JR. 1970. Survival of virus in chilled, frozen, and processed oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 20: 5863.
  • Dimitrov DH, Graham DY, Estes MK. 1985. Detection of rotavirus by nucleic acid hybridization with cloned DNA of simian rotavirus SA-11 genes. J Infect Dis 152: 293300.
  • Dix AB, Jaykus LA. 1998. Virion concentration method for the detection of human enteric viruses in extracts of hard-shelled clams. J Food Protect 61: 458465.
  • Dolin R, Reichman RC, Roessner KD, Tralker TS, Schooley RT, Gary W, Morens D. 1982. Detection by immune electron microscopy of the Snow Mountain Agent of acute viral gastroenteritis. J Infect Dis 146: 184189.
  • Doultree JC, Druce JD, Birch CJ, Bowden DS, Marshall JA. 1999. Inactiviation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J Hosp Infect 41: 5157.
  • Drebot MA, Lee SH. 1997. RT-PCR detection of RNA viruses in stool specimens. Biotechniques 23: 616618.
  • Enriquez R, Frosner GG, Hochstein-Mintzel V, Riedemann S, Reinhardt G. 1992. Accumulation and persistence of hepatitis A virus in mussels. J Med Virol 37: 174179.
  • Epstein CB, Butow RA. 2000. Microarray technology - enhanced versatility, persistent challenge. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11: 3641.
  • Estes MK, Leparc-Goffart I. 1999. Norwalk and related viruses. In: GranoffA, WebsterRG, editors. Encyclopedia of virology: volume 2, 2nd ed. San Diego : Academic Press. p 10351041.
  • Estes MK, Ball JM, Guerrero RA, Opekun AR, Gilger MA, Pacheco SS, Graham DY. 2000. Norwalk virus vaccines: challenges and progress. J Infect Dis 181(S2): S367373.
  • Fankhauser RL, Noel JS, Monroe SS, Ando T, Glass RI. 1998. Molecular epidemiology of “Norwalk-like viruses” in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J Infect Dis 178: 15711578.
  • Feinstone SM. 1996. Hepatitis A: epidemiology and prevention. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 8: 300305.
  • Fleissner ML, Herrmann JE, Booth JW, Blacklow NR, Nowak NA. 1989. Role of Norwalk virus in 2 foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis: definitive virus association. Am J Epidemiol 129: 165172.
  • Fugate KJ, Cliver DO, Hatch MT. 1975. Enteroviruses and potential bacterial indicators in Gulf Coast oysters. J Milk Food Technol 38: 100104.
  • Gary GW, Kaplan JE, Stine SE, Anderson LJ. 1985. Detection of Norwalk virus antibodies and antigen with a biotin-avidin immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 22: 274278.
  • Gary GW, Anderson LJ, Keswick BH, Johnson PC, DuPont HL, Stine SE, Bartlett AV. 1987. Norwalk virus antigen and antibody response in an adult volunteer study. J Clin Microbiol 25: 20012003.
  • Gaulin C, Frigon M, Poirier D, Fournier C. 1999a. Transmission of calicivirus by a foodhandler in the pre-symptomatic phase of illness. Epidemiol Infect 123: 475478.
  • Gaulin CD, Ramsay D, Cardinal P, D'Halevyn MA. 1999b. Epidemic of gastroenteritis of viral origin associated with eating import raspberries. Can J Public Health 90: 3740.
  • Gerba CP. 1988. Viral disease transmission by seafoods. Food Technol 42(3): 99103.
  • Gerba CP, Goyal SM. 1978. Detection and occurrence of enteric viruses in shellfish: a review. J Food Protect 41: 743754.
  • Glass RI, Gentsch JR, Ivanoff B. 1996. New lessons for rotavirus vaccines. Science 272: 4648.
  • Gordon SM, Oshiro LS, Jarvis WR, Donenfeld D, Ho MS, Taylor F, Greenberg HB, Glass R, Madore HP, Dolin R. 1990. Foodborne Snow Mountain agent gastroenteritis with secondary person-to-person spread in a retirement community. Am J Epidemiol 131: 702710.
  • Gouvea V, Glass RI, Woods P, Taniguchi K, Clark HF, Forrester B, Fang ZY. 1990. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotaviruses nucleic acid from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 28: 276282.
  • Gouvea V, Santos N, Carmo-Timenetsky M, Estes MK. 1994. Identification of Norwalk virus in artificially seeded shellfish and selected foods. J Virol Methods 48: 177187.
  • Graham DY, Jiang X, Tanaka T, Opekun AR, Madore HP, Estes MK. 1994. Norwalk virus infection of volunteers: new insights based on improved assays. J Infect Dis 170: 3443.
  • Gray JJ, Cunliffe C, Ball J, Graham DY, Desselberger U, Estes MK. 1994. Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG Norwalk virus-specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with baculovirus-expressed Norwalk virus capsid antigen in adult volunteers challenged with Norwalk virus. J Clin Microbiol 32: 30593063.
  • Green J, Gallimore CI, Norcott JP, Lewis D, Brown DWG. 1995a. Broadly reactive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the diagnosis of SRSV-associated gastroenteritis. J Med Virol 47: 392398.
  • Green SM, Lambden PR, Caul EO, Ashley CR, Clarke IN. 1995b. Capsid diversity in small round-structured viruses: molecular characterization of an antigenically distinct human enteric calicivirus. Virus Res 37: 271283.
  • Green KY, Kapikian AZ, Valdesuso J, Sosnovtsev S, Treanor JJ, Lew JF. 1997. Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus. J Clin Microbiol 35: 19091914.
  • Green J, Henshilwood K, Gallimore CI, Brown DWG, Lees DN. 1998a. A nested reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of small round-structured viruses in environmentally contaminated molluscan shellfish. Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 858863.
  • Green J, Wright PA, Gallimore CI, Mitchell O, Morgan-Capner P, Brown DWG. 1998b. The role of environmental contamination with small round structured viruses in a hospital outbreak investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. J Hospital Infect 39: 3945.
  • Green J, Brown D, Cheesbrough J, Wright P. 1999. The detection of environmental small round structured virus by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In: Abstract book of the International Workshop on Human Caliciviruses; March 29–31, 1999; Atlanta, GA. Nr S3-8.
  • Greenberg HB, Wyatt RG, Valdesuso J, Kalica AR, London WT, Chanock RM, Kapikian AZ. 1978. Solid-phase microtiter radioimmunoassay for detection of the Norwalk strain of acute nonbacterial, epidemic gastroenteritis virus and its antibodies. J Med Virol 2: 97108.
  • Greenberg HB, Wyatt RG, Kapikian AZ. 1979. Norwalk virus in vomitus. Lancet 1(8106): 55.
  • Greenberg HB, Matsui SM. 1992. Astrovirus and caliciviruses: emerging enteric pathogens. Infect Agents Dis 1: 7191.
  • Greene SR, Moe CL, Jaykus LA, Cronin M. 1999. Evaluation of a rapid method for the detection of Norwalk virus RNA. In: The Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 1999; San Francisco, CA.
  • Griffin MR, Surowiec JJ, McCloskey DI, Capuano B, Pierzynski B, Quinn M, Wojnarski R, Parkin WE, Greenberg H, Gary GW. 1982. Foodborne Norwalk virus. Am J Epidemiol 115: 178184.
  • Griffin DW, Gibson III CJ, Lipp EK, Riley K, Paul III JH, Rose JB. 1999. Detection of viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase PCR and of microbial indicators by standard methods in the canals of the Florida Keys. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 41184125.
  • Gross TP, Conde JG, Gary GW, Harting D, Goeller D, Israel E. 1989. An outbreak of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis in a high school in Maryland. Public Health Rep 104: 164169.
  • Guest C, Spitainy KC, Madore HP, Pray K, Dolin R, Herrmann JE, Blacklow NR. 1987. Food-borne snow mountain agent gastroenteritis in a school cafeteria. Pediatrics 79: 559563.
  • Gunn RA, Janowski HT, Lieb S, Prather EC, Greenberg HB. 1982. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption. Am J Epidemiol 115: 348351.
  • Guzewich J, Ross MP. 1999. “Evaluation of Risks Related to Microbiological Contamination of Ready-to-eat Food by Food Preparation Workers and the Effectiveness of Interventions to Minimize Those Risks.” http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ear/rterisk.html (Accessed 11 January, 2000).
  • Hafliger D, Gilgen M, Luthy J, Hubner P. 1997. Seminested RT-PCR systems for small round structured viruses and detection of enteric viruses in seafood. Int J Food Microbiol 37: 2736.
  • Hale AD, Green J, Brown DWG. 1996. Comparison of 4 RNA extraction methods for the detection of small round structured viruses in faecal specimens. J Virol Methods 57: 195201.
  • Hale AD, Crawford SE, Ciarlet M, Green J, Gallimore C, Brown DWG, Jiang X, Estes MK. 1999. Expression and self-assembly of Grimsby virus: antigenic distinction from Norwalk and Mexico viruses. Clin Diag Lab Immunol 6: 142145.
  • Halliday ML, Kang LY, Zhou TK, Hu MD, Pan QC, Fu TY, Huang YS, Hu SL. 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J Infect Dis 164: 852859.
  • Hardy ME. 1999. Norwalk and “Norwalk-like viruses” in epidemic gastroenteritis. Clin Lab Med 19: 675690.
  • Hardy ME, Kramer SF, Treanor JJ, Estes MK. 1997. Human calicivirus genogroup II capsid sequence diversity revealed by analyses of the prototype Snow Mountain agent. Arch Virol 142: 197202.
  • Hedberg CW, Osterholm MT. 1993. Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis. Clin Microbiol Rev 6: 199210.
  • Herrmann JE, Nowak NA, Blacklow NR. 1985. Detection of Norwalk virus in stools by enzyme immunoassay. J Med Virol 17: 127133.
  • Herrmann JE, Kent GP, Nowak NA, Brondum J, Blacklow NR. 1986. Antigen detection in the diagnosis of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis. J Infect Dis 154: 547548.
  • Heun EM, Vogt RL, Hudson PJ, Parren S, Gary GW. 1987. Risk factors for secondary transmission in households after a common-source outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis. Am J Epidemiol 126: 11811186.
  • Hirmo S, Artursson E, Puu G, Wadstrom T, Nilsson B. 1998. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori interactions with sialylglycoconjugates using a resonant mirror biosensor. Anal Biochem 257: 6366.
  • Honma S, Nakata S, Kinoshita-Numata K, Kogawa K, Chiba S. 2000. Evaluation of 9 sets of PCR primers in the RNA dependent RNA polymerase region for detection and differentiation of members of the family Caliciviridae, Norwalk virus and Sapporo virus. Microbiol Immunol 44: 411419.
  • Hutin YJF, Pool V, Cramer EH, Nainan OV, Weth J, Williams IT, Goldstein ST, Gensheimer KF, Bell BP, Shapiro CN, Alter MJ, Margolis HS. 1999. A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. New Engl J Med 340: 595602.
  • Iversen AM, Gill M, Bartlett CLR. 1987. Two outbreaks of foodborne gastroenteritis caused by a small round structured virus: evidence of prolonged infectivity in a food handler. Lancet 2(8558): 556558.
  • Jacobs RJ, Grover SF, Meyerhoff AS, Paivanas TA. 2000. Cost effectiveness of vaccinating food service workers against hepatitis A infection. J Food Protect 63: 768774.
  • Jaykus LA. 1997. Epidemiology and detection as options for control of viral and parasitic foodborne disease. Emerg Infect Dis 3: 529539.
  • Jaykus LA. 2000a. Enteric viruses as “emerging” agents of foodborne disease. Irish J Agr Food Res 39: 245255.
  • Jaykus LA. 2000b. Detection of human enteric viruses in foods. In: HuiYH, SattarSA, MurrellKD, NipWK, StanfieldPS, editors. Foodborne disease handbook: viruses, parasites, and HACCP, volume 2, 2nd ed. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc. p 137163.
  • Jaykus LA, Hemard MT, Sobsey MD. 1994. Human enteric pathogenic viruses. In: HackneyCR, PiersonMD, editors. Environmental indicators and shellfish safety. New York : Chapman and Hall. p 92153.
  • Jaykus LA, De Leon R, Sobsey MD. 1995. Development of a molecular method for the detection of enteric viruses in oysters. J Food Protect 58: 13571362.
  • Jaykus LA, De Leon R, Sobsey MD. 1996. A virion concentration method for detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by PCR and oligoprobe hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 20742080.
  • Jiang X, Estes MK, Metcalf TG. 1987. Detection of hepatitis A virus by hybridization with single-stranded RNA probes. Appl Environ Microbiol 53: 24872495.
  • Jiang X, Graham DY, Wang K, Estes MK. 1990. Norwalk virus genome cloning and characterization. Science 250: 15801583.
  • Jiang X, Wang M, Graham DY, Estes MK. 1992. Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein. J Virol 66: 65276532.
  • Jiang X, Wang M, Wang K, Estes MK. 1993. Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology 195: 5161.
  • Jiang X, Wang J, Estes MK. 1995. Characterization of SRSVs using RT-PCR and a new antigen ELISA. Arch Virol 140: 363374.
  • Jiang X, Cubitt WD, Berke T, Zhong W, Dai X, Nakata S, Pickering LK, Matson DO. 1997. Sapporo-like human caliciviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse. Arch Virol 142: 18131827.
  • Jiang X, Huang PW, Zhong WM, Farkas T, Cubitt DW, Matson DO. 1999. Design and evaluation of a primer pair that detects both Norwalk- and Sapporo-like caliciviruses by RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 83: 145154.
  • Jiang X, Wilton N, Zhong WM, Farkas T, Huang PW, Barrett E, Guerrero M, Ruiz-Palacios G, Green KY, Green J, Hale AD, Estes MK, Pickering LK, Matson DO. 2000. Diagnosis of human caliciviruses by use of enzyme immunoassays. J Infect Dis 181(S2): S349359.
  • Kapikian AZ, Wyatt RG, Dolin R, Thornhill TS, Kalica AR, Chanock RM. 1972. Visualization by immune electron microscopy of a 27-nm particle associated with acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. J Virol 10: 10751081.
  • Kapikian AZ, Greenberg HB, Cline WL, Kalica AR, Wyatt RG, James Jr. HD, Lloyd NL, Chanock RM, Ryder RW, Kim HW. 1978. Prevalence of antibody to the Norwalk agent by a newly developed immune adherence hemagglutination assay. J Med Virol 2: 281294.
  • Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM. 1990. Norwalk group of viruses. In: FieldsBN, KnipeDM, ChanockRM, HirschMS, MelnickJL, MonathTP, RoizmanB, editors. Fields virology, 2nd ed. New York : Raven Press. p 671693.
  • Kapikian AZ, Estes MK, Chanock RM. 1996. Norwalk group of viruses. In: FieldsBN, KnipeDM, HowleyPM, editors. Fields virology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven Publishers. p 783810.
  • Kaplan JE, Gary GW, Baron RC, Singh N, Schonberger LB, Feldman R, Greenberg HB. 1982a. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Ann Intern Med 96: 756761.
  • Kaplan JE, Feldman R, Campbell DS, Lookabaugh C, Gary GW. 1982b. The frequency of a Norwalk-like pattern of illness in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Am J Public Health 72: 13291332.
  • Katzenelson E, Buium I, Shuval HI. 1976. Risk of communicable disease infection associated with wastewater irrigation in agricultural settlements. Science 194: 944946.
  • Kersten G, Hazendonk T, Beuvery C. 1999. Antigenic and immunogenic properties of inactivated polio vaccine made from Sabin strains. Vaccine 17: 20592066.
  • Keswick BH, Satterwhite TK, Johnson PC, DuPont HL, Secor SL, Bitsura JA, Gary GW, Hoff JC. 1985. Inactivation of Norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine. Appl Environ Microbiol 50: 261264.
  • Kitahashi T, Tanaka T, Utagawa E. 1999. Detection of HAV, SRSV and astrovirus genomes from native oysters in Chiba City, Japan. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73: 559: 564.
  • Kobayashi S, Morishita T, Yamashita T, Sakae K, Nishio O, Miyake T, Ishihara Y, Isomura S. 1991. A large outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a small round structured virus among school children and teachers in Japan. Epidemiol Infect 107: 8186.
  • Kogawa K, Nakata S, Ukae S, Adachi N, Numata K, Matson DO, Estes MK, Chiba S. 1996. Dot blot hybridization with a cDNA probe derived from the human calicivirus Sapporo 1982 strain. Arch Virol 141: 194959.
  • Kohn MA, Farley TA, Ando T, Curtis M, Wilson SA, Jin Q, Monroe SS, Baron RC, McFarland LM, Glass RI. 1995. An outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oysters: implications for maintaining safe oyster beds. JAMA 273: 466471.
  • Koo K, Jaykus LA. 2000. A modified method to detect PCR products by a 5′ nuclease activity and an asymmetric fluorogenic probe set. Biotechniques 29: 690694.
  • Kurdziel AS, Wilkinson N, Langton S, Cook N. 2001. Survival of poliovirus on soft fruit and salad vegetables. J Food Prot 64: 706709.
  • Kuritsky JN, Osterholm MT, Greenberg HB, Korlath JA, Godes JR, Hedberg CW, Forfang JC, Kapikian AZ, McCullough JC, White KE. 1984. Norwalk gastroenteritis: a community outbreak associated with bakery product consumption. Ann Intern Med 100: 519521.
  • Lambden PR, Caul EO, Ashley CR, Clarke IN. 1993. Sequence and genome organization of a human small round-structured (Norwalk-like) virus. Science 259: 516519.
  • Lampel KA, Orlandi PA, Kornegay L. 2000. Improved template preparation for PCR-based assays for detection of food-borne bacterial pathogens. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 45394542.
  • Larkin EP, Fassolitis AC. 1979. Viral heat resistance and infectious ribonucleic acid. Appl Environ Microbiol 38: 650655.
  • Larson EL. 1985. Handwashing and skin physiologic and bacteriologic aspects. Infect Control 6: 1423.
  • Le Guyader F, Dubois E, Menard D, Pommepuy M. 1994. Detection of Hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and enterovirus in naturally contaminated shellfish and sediment by reverse transcription-seminested PCR. Appl Environ Micrbiol 60: 36653671.
  • Le Guyader F, Neill FH, Estes MK, Monroe SS, Ando T, Atmar RL. 1996a. Detection and analysis of a small round-structured virus strain in oysters implicated in an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 42684272.
  • Le Guyader F, Estes MK, Hardy ME, Neill FH, Green J, Brown DWG, Atmar RL. 1996b. Evaluation of a degenerate primer for the PCR detection of human caliciviruses. Arch Virol 141: 22252235.
  • Le Guyader F, Haugarreau L, Miossec L, Dubois E, Pommepuy M. 2000. Three-y study to assess human enteric viruses in shellfish. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 32413248.
  • Lednar WM, Lemon SM, Kirkpatrick JW, Redfield RR, Fields ML, Kelley PW. 1985. Frequency of illness associated with epidemic hepatitis A virus infections in adults. Am J Epidemiol 122: 226233.
  • Lees D. 2000. Viruses and bivalve shellfish. Int J Food Microbiol 59: 81116.
  • Lees DN, Henshilwood K, Green J, Gallimore CI, Brown DWG. 1995. Detection of small round structured viruses in shellfish by reverse transcription-PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 44184424.
  • Leggitt PR. 1998. Development of methods to purify and concentrate human enteric viruses from representative food commodities for detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and oligoprobe hybridization (OP) [MS thesis]. Raleigh , NC : North Carolina State Univ.
  • Leggitt PR, Jaykus LA. 2000. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods. J Food Protect 63: 17381744.
  • Leite JP, Ando T, Noel JS, Jiang B, Humphrey CD, Lew JF, Green KY, Glass RI, Monroe SS. 1996. Characterization of Toronto virus capsid protein expressed in baculovirus. Arch Virol 141: 865875.
  • Lemon SM, Binn LN, Marchwicki RH. 1983. Radioimmunofocus assay for quantitation of hepatitis A virus in cell cultures. J Clin Microbiol 17: 834839.
  • Leoni E, Bevini C, Degli Esposti S, Graziano A. 1998. An outbreak of intrafamiliar hepatitis A associated with clam consumption: epidemic transmission to a school community. Eur J Epidemiol 14: 187192.
  • Letterman RD. 1999. Water quality and treatment: A handbook of community water supplies. 5th ed. New York : American Water Works Association, McGraw-Hill.
  • Levett PN, Gu M, Luan B, Fearon M, Stubberfield J, Jamieson F, Petric M. 1996. Longitudinal study of molecular epidemiology of small round-structured viruses in a pediatric population. J Clin Microbiol 34: 14971501.
  • Lew JF, Kapikian AZ, Valdesuso J, Green KY. 1994a. Molecular characterization of Hawaii virus and other Norwalk-like viruses: evidence for genetic polymorphism among human caliciviruses. J Infect Dis 170: 535542.
  • Lew JF, Kapikian AZ, Jiang X, Estes MK, Green KY. 1994b. Molecular characterization and expression of the capsid protein of a Norwalk-like virus recovered from a Desert Shield troop with gastroenteritis. Virology 200: 319325.
  • Lewis D, Ando T, Humphrey CD, Monroe SS, Glass RI. 1995. Use of solid-phase immune electron microscopy for classification of Norwalk-like viruses into 6 antigenic groups from 10 outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 33: 501504.
  • Lo SV, Connolly AM, Palmer SR, Wright D, Thomas PD, Joynson D. 1994. The role of the presymptomatic food handler in a common source outbreak of food-borne SRSV gastroenteritis in a group of hospitals. Epidemiol Infect 113: 513521.
  • Lopez-Sabater EI, Deng MY, Cliver DO. 1997. Magnetic immunoseparation PCR assay (MIPA) for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Letters in Appl Microbiol 24: 101104.
  • Maguire AJ, Green J, Brown DG, Desselberger U, Gray JJ. 1999. Molecular epidemiology of outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with small round-structured viruses in East Anglia, United Kingdom, during the 1996–1997 season. J Clin Microbiol 37: 8189.
  • Mallett JC, Beghian LE, Metcalf TG, Kaylor JD. 1991. Potential of irradiation technology for improved shellfish sanitation. J Food Safety 11: 231245.
  • Malmqvist M. 1993. Biospecific interaction analysis using biosensor technology. Nature. 361: 186187.
  • Mandrell RE, Wachtel MR. 1999. Novel detection techniques for human pathogens that contaminate poultry. Curr Opin Biotechnol 10: 273278.
  • Margolin AB, Richardson KJ, DeLeon R, Gerba CP. 1989. Application of gene probes to the detection of enteroviruses in water. In: LarsonRA, editor. Biohazards of drinking water treatment. Chelsea : Lewis Publishers. 265270.
  • Marks PJ, Vipond IB, Carlisle D, Deakin D, Fey RE, Caul EO. 2000. Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiol Infect 124: 481487.
  • Martell M, Gomez J, Esteban JI, Sauleda S, Quer J, Cabot B, Esteban R, Guardia J. 1999. High-throughput real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA. J Clin Microbiol 37: 327332.
  • Matson DO, Zhong WM, Nakata S, Numata K, Jiang X, Pickering LK, Chiba S, Estes MK. 1995. Molecular characterization of a human calicivirus with sequence relationships closer to animal caliciviruses. J Med Virol 45: 215222.
  • Mbithi JN, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA. 1990. Chemical disinfection of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol 56: 36013604.
  • Mbithi JN, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA. 1991. Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol 57: 13941399.
  • Mbithi JN, Springthorpe VS, Boulet JR, Sattar SA. 1992. Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. J Clin Microbiol 30: 757763.
  • Mbithi JN, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA. 1993. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin). Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 34633469.
  • McCarthy M, Estes MK, Hyams KC. 2000. Norwalk-like virus infection in military forces: epidemic potential, sporadic disease, and the future direction of prevention and control efforts. J Infect Dis 181(S2): S387391.
  • McDermott BM, Rux AH, Eisenberg RJ, Cohen GH, Racaniello VR. 2000. Two distinct binding affinities of poliovirus for its cellular receptor. J Biol Chem 275: 2308923096.
  • McKillip JL, Drake M. 2000. Molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk. J Food Prot 63: 855859.
  • Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emer Infect Dis 5: 607625.
  • Mehnert DU, Stewien KE. 1993. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paolo, Brazil. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 140143.
  • Mele A, Stroffolini T, Palumbo F, Gallo G, Ragni P, Balocchini E, Tosti ME, Corona R, Marzolini A, Moiraghi A. 1997. Incidence of and risk factors for hepatitis A in Italy: public health indications from a 10-y surveillance. J Hepatol 26: 743747.
  • Meschke JS, Sobsey MD. 1998. Comparative adsorption of Norwalk virus, poliovirus 1 and F+ RNA coliphage MS2 to soils suspended in treated wastewater. Water Sci Technol 38: 187189.
  • Metcalf TG, Melnick JL, Estes MK. 1995. Environmental virology: from detection of virus in sewage and water by isolation to identification by molecular biology - a trip of over 50 y. Annu Rev Microbiol 49: 461487.
  • Moe CL, Gentsch J, Ando T, Grohmann G, Monroe SS, Jiang X, Wang J, Estes MK, Seto Y, Humphrey C, Stine S, Glass RI. 1994. Application of PCR to detect Norwalk virus in fecal specimens from outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 32: 642648.
  • Moe CL, Rhodes D, Pusek S, Tseng F, Heizer W, Kapoor C, Gilliam B, Harb M, Stewart P, Miller S, Sobsey M, Herrmann J, Blacklow N, Calderon R. 1998. Determination of Norwalk virus dose-response in human volunteers [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 98th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology; May 1998; Atlanta, GA. Nr C-384.
  • Monroe SS, Stine SE, Jiang X, Estes MK, Glass RI. 1993. Detection of antibody to recombinant Norwalk virus antigen in specimens from outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 31: 28662872.
  • Monroe, S. S. 1999. Personal Communication.
  • Morse DL, Guzewich JJ, Hanrahan HP, Stricof R, Shayegani M, Deibel R, Grabau J, Nowak NA, Herrman JE, Cukor G, Blacklow NR. 1986. Widespread outbreaks of clam and oyster-associated gastroenteritis-role of Norwalk virus. New Eng J Med 314: 678681.
  • Muir P, Kammerer U, Korn K, Mulders MN, Poyry T, Weissbrich B, Kandolf R, Cleator GM, Van Loon AM. 1998. Molecular typing of enteroviruses: current status and future requirements. Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 202227.
  • Murphy AM, Grohmann GS, Christopher RJ, Lopez WA, Davey GR, Millsom RH. 1979. An Australia-wide outbreak of gastroenteritis from oysters caused by Norwalk virus. Med J Aust 2: 329333.
  • Nakata S, Honma S, Numata K, Kogawa K, Ukae S, Adachi N, Jiang X, Estes MK, Gatheru Z, Tukei PM, Chiba S. 1998. Prevalence of human calicivirus infections in Kenya as determined by enzyme immunoassays for 3 genogroups of the virus. J Clin Microbiol 36: 31603163.
  • Niu MT, Polish LB, Robertson BH, Khanna BK, Woodruff BA, Shapiro CN, Miller MA, Smith JD, Gedrose JK, Alter MJ, Margolis HS. 1992. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J Infect Dis 166: 518524.
  • Noel JS, Ando T, Leite JP, Green KY, Dingle KE, Estes MK, Seto Y, Monroe SS, Glass RI. 1997. Correlation of patient immune responses with genetically characterized small round-structured viruses involved in outbreaks of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 1990–1995. J Med Virol 53: 372383.
  • Norton DM, Batt CA. 1999. Detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes with a 5′ nuclease PCR assay. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 21222127.
  • Numata K, Nakata S, Jiang X, Estes MK, Chiba S. 1994. Epidemiological study of Norwalk virus infections in Japan and Southeast Asia by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with Norwalk virus capsid protein produced by the baculovirus expression system. J Clin Microbiol 32: 121126.
  • Numata K, Hardy ME, Nakata S, Chiba S, Estes MK. 1997. Molecular characterization of morphologically typical human calicivirus Sapporo. Arch Virol 142: 15371552.
  • Oberst RD, Hays MP, Bohra LK, Phebus RK, Yamashiro CT, Paszko-Kolva C, Flood SJA, Sargeant JM, Gillespie JR. 1998. PCR-based DNA amplification and presumptive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with an internal fluorogenic probe and the 5′ nuclease (Taqman) assay. Appl Environ Micro 64: 33893396.
  • Oishi I, Yamazaki K, Kimoto T, Minekawa Y, Utagawa E, Tamazaki S, Inouye S, Grohmann GS, Monroe SS, Stine SE. 1994. A large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis associated with astro-virus among students and teachers in Osaka, Japan. J Infect Dis 170: 439443.
  • Okhuysen PC, Jiang X, Ye L, Johnson PC, Estes MK. 1995. Viral shedding and fecal IgA response after Norwalk virus infection. J Infect Dis 171: 566569.
  • Organon Teknika Corp. 1999. NucliSens basic kit application manual. Organon Teknika Corp., Durham , NC .
  • Otsu R. 1999. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis caused by SRSVs from 1987 to 1992 in Kyushu, Japan: 4 outbreaks associated with oyster consumption. Eur J Epidemiol 15: 175180.
  • Parashar UD, Dow L, Fankhauser RL, Humphrey CD, Miller J, Ando T, Williams KS, Eddy CR, Noel JS, Ingram T, Bresee JS, Monroe SS, Glass RI. 1998. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of sandwiches: implications for the control of transmission by food handlers. Epidemiol Infect 121: 615621.
  • Parker SP, Cubitt WD, Jiang X, Estes MK. 1993. Efficacy of a recombinant Norwalk virus protein enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of infections with Norwalk virus and other human “candidate” caliciviruses. J Med Virol 41: 179184.
  • Parker SP, Cubitt WD. 1994. Measurement of IgA responses following Norwalk virus infection and other human caliciviruses using a recombinant Norwalk virus protein EIA. Epidemiol Infect 113: 143152.
  • Parker SP, Cubitt WD, Jiang X, Estes MK. 1994. Seroprevalence studies using a recombinant Norwalk virus protein enzyme immunoassay. J Med Virol 42: 146150.
  • Parry JV, Perry KR, Panday S, Mortimer PP. 1989. Diagnosis of hepatitis A and B by testing saliva. J Med Virol 28: 255260.
  • Patterson W, Haswell P, Fryers PT, Green J. 1997. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited. Commun Dis Rep 7(7): R1013.
  • Pease AC, Solas D, Sullivan EJ, Cronin MT, Holmes CP, Fodor SPA. 1994. Light-generated oligonucleotide arrays for rapid DNA sequence analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 91: 50225026.
  • Pether JVS, Caul EO. 1983. An outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis in 2 hospitals associated with a Norwalk-like virus. J Hyg Camb 91: 343350.
  • Pina S, Puig M, Lucena F, Jofre J, Girones R. 1998. Viral pollution in the environment and in shellfish: human adenovirus detection by PCR as an index of human viruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 33763382.
  • Pirtle EC, Beran GW. 1991. Virus survival in the environment. Rev Sci Tech 10: 733748.
  • Ponka A, Maunula L, Von Bonsdorff CH, Lyytikainen O. 1999. An outbreak of calicivirus associated with consumption of frozen raspberries. Epidemiol Infect 123: 469474.
  • Power UF, Collins JK. 1989. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 13861390.
  • Power UF, Collins JK. 1990. Tissue distribution of a coliphage and Escherichia coli in mussels after contamination and depuration. Appl Environ Micorbiol 56: 803807.
  • Pyun JC, Beutel H, Meyer JU, Ruf HH. 1998. Development of a biosensor for E. coli based on a flexural plate wave (FPW) transducer. Biosens Bioelectron 13: 839845.
  • Restaino L, Wind CE. 1990. Antimicrobial effectiveness of hand washing for food establishments. Dairy Food Environ Sanit 10: 136141.
  • Richards GP. 1985. Outbreaks of shellfish-associated enteric virus illness in the United States: requisite for development of viral guidelines. J Food Protect 48: 815823.
  • Richards GP. 1999. Limitations of molecular biological techniques for assessing the virological safety of foods. J Food Protect 62: 691697.
  • Rodgers FG. 1981. Concentration of viruses in faecal samples from patients with gastroen-teritis. In: GoddardM, ButtlerM, editors. Viruses and wastewater treatment. New York : Pergamon Press. p 1518.
  • Rosenblum LS, Mirkin IR, Allen DT, Safford S, Hadler SC. 1990. A multifocal outbreak of hepatitis A traced to commercially distributed lettuce. Am J Public Health 80: 10751079.
  • Rossen L, Norskov P, Holmstrom K, Rasmussen OF. 1992. Inhibition of PCR by components of food samples, microbial diagnostic assays and DNA-extraction solutions. Int J Food Microbiol 17: 3745.
  • Sattar SA, Lloyd-Evans N, Springthorpe VS. 1986. Institutional outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea: potential role of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles for virus transmission. J Hyg Camb 96: 277289.
  • Sattar SA, Springthorpe VS. 1996. Transmission of viral infections through animate and inanimate surfaces and infection control through chemical disinfection. In: HurstCJ, editor. Modeling disease transmission and its prevention by disinfection. Cambridge , MA : Cambridge Univ. Press. p 224257.
  • Schmidt NJ, Ho HH, Riggs JL, Lennette RH. 1978. Comparative sensitivity of various cell culture systems for isolation of viruses from wastewater and fecal samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 36: 480486.
  • Schwab KJ, De Leon R, Sobsey MD. 1996. Immunoaffinity concentration and purification of waterborne enteric virus for detection by reverse transcriptase PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 20862094.
  • Schwab KJ, Estes MK, Neill FH, Atmar RL. 1997. Use of heat release and an internal RNA standard control in reverse transcription-PCR detection of Norwalk virus from stool samples. J Clin Microbiol 35: 511514.
  • Schwab KJ, Neill FH, Estes MK, Metcalf TG, Atmar RL. 1998. Distribution of Norwalk virus within shellfish following bioaccumulation and subsequent depuration by detection using RT-PCR. J Food Protect 61: 16741680.
  • Schwab KJ, Neill FH, Fankhauser RL, Daniels NA, Monroe SS, Bergmire-Sweat DA, Estes MK, Atmar RL. 2000. Development of methods to detect “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLVs) and hepatitis A virus in delicatessen foods: application to a food-borne NLV outbreak. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 213218.
  • Schwab KJ, Neill FH, Le Guyader F, Estes MK, Atmar RL. 2001. Development of a reverse transcription-PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay for detection of “Norwalk-like” viruses and hepatitis A virus in stool and shellfish. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 742749.
  • Sharma VK, Dean-Nystrom EA, Casey TA. 1999. Semi-automated fluorogenic PCR assays (TaqMan) for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxigenic E. coli. Mol Cell Probes 13: 291302.
  • Sharma VK, Carlson SA. 2000. Simultaneous detection of Salmonella strains and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 with fluorogenic PCR and single-enrichment-broth culture. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 54725476.
  • Shieh YC, Baric RS, Sobsey MD, Ticehurst J, Meile TA, De Leon R, Walter R. 1991. Detection of hepatitis A virus and other enteroviruses in water by ssRNA probes. J Virol Methods 31: 119136.
  • Shieh YC, Calci KR, Baric RS. 1999. A method to detect low levels of enteric viruses in contaminated oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 47094714.
  • Shieh YC, Monroe SS, Fankhauser RL, Langlois GW, Burkhardt III W, Baric RS. 2000. Detection of Norwalk-like virus in shellfish implicated in illness. J Infect Dis 181(S2): S360366.
  • Slomka MJ, Appleton H. 1998. Feline calicivirus as a model system for heat inactivation studies of small round structured viruses in shellfish. Epidemiol Infect 121: 401407.
  • Sobsey MD. 1985. Development of hepatitis A virus infectivity assay for Eastern oysters. Final Contract Report No. NA-83-GA-C-00032. Charleston , S.C. : Nathional Marine Fisheries Service.
  • Sobsey MD. 1987. Methods for recovering viruses from shellfish, seawater, and sediments. In: BergG, editor. Methods for recovering viruses from the environment. Boca Raton : CRC Press. 77108.
  • Sobsey MD, Carrick RJ, Jensen HR. 1978. Improved methods for detecting enteric viruses in oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 36: 121128.
  • Sockett PN, West PA, Jacob M. 1985. Shellfish and public health. PHLS Microbiol Digest 2: 2935.
  • Springthorpe S, Sattar S. 1998. Handwashing: what can we learn from recent research? Infect Control Today 2: 2028.
  • Stafford R, Strain D, Heymer M, Smith C, Trent M, Beard J. 1997. An outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following consumption of oysters. Commun Dis Intell 21: 317320.
  • Stolle A, Sperner B. 1997. Viral infections transmitted by food of animal origin: the present situation in the European Union. Arch Virol Suppl 13: 219228.
  • Straub TM, Pepper IL, Gerba CP. 1994. Detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses and hepatitis A in undigested and anaerobically digested sludge using the polymerase chain reaction. Can J Microbiol 40: 884888.
  • Stuart JM, Majeed FA, Cartwright KAV, Room R, Parry JV, Perry KR, Begg NT. 1992. Salivary antibody testing in a school outbreak of hepatitis A. Epidemiol Infect 109: 161166.
  • Sugieda M, Nakajima K, Nakajima S. 1996. Outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus-associated gastroenteritis traced to shellfish: coexistence of 2 genotypes in 1 specimen. Epidemiol Infect 116: 339346.
  • Sundkvist T, Hamilton GR, Hourihan BM, Hart IJ. 2000. Outbreak of hepatitis A spread by contaminated drinking glasses in a public house. Commun Dis Public Health 3: 6062.
  • Svensson L. 2000. Diagnosis of foodborne viral infections in patients. Int J Food Microbiol 59: 117126.
  • Tacket CO, Mason HS, Losonsky G, Estes MK, Levine MM, Arntzen CJ. 2000. Human immune response to a novel Norwalk virus vaccine delivered in transgenic potatoes. J Infect Dis 182: 302305.
  • Tauxe RV. 1997. Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge. Emerg Inf Dis 3: 425434.
  • Tierney JT, Larkin EP. 1978. Potential sources of error during virus thermal inactivation. Appl Environ Microbiol 36: 432437.
  • Tierney JT, Sullivan R, Peeler JT, Larkin EP. 1982. Persistence of polioviruses in shellstock and shucked oysters stored at refrigeration temperature. J Food Prot 45: 11351137.
  • Treanor JJ, Jiang X, Madore HP, Estes MK. 1993. Subclass-specific serum antibody responses to recombinant Norwalk virus capsid antigen (rNV) in adults infected with Norwalk, Snow Mountain, or Hawaii virus. J Clin Microbiol 31: 16301634.
  • Tsai Y-L, Tran B, Palmer CJ. 1995. Analysis of viral RNA persistence in seawater by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 363366.
  • Tyagi S, Kramer FR. 1996. Molecular beacons: probes that fluoresce upon hybridization. Nature Biotech 14: 303308.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water. 1999. Guidance Manual, Alterntive Disinfectants and Oxidants. Chapter 2, Disinfectant Use in Water. EPA 815-R-99-014.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water. 2001. Current Drinking Water Standards. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/mcl.html.
  • U.S. Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Food Code, 1999. Springfield , VA : National Technology Information Service. Chapter 3: 43.
  • Van Hal NL, Vorst O, Van Houwelingen AM, Kok EJ, Peijnenburg A, Aharoni A, Van Tunen AJ, Keijer J. 2000. The application of DNA microarrays in gene expression analysis. J Biotechnology 78: 271280.
  • Van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL. 2000. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego , CA. pp. 725739.
  • Vinje J, Koopmans MP. 1996. Molecular detection and epidemiology of small round-structured viruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the Netherlands. J Infect Dis 174: 610615.
  • Vinje J, Koopmans MP. 2000. Simultaneous detection and genotyping of “Norwalk-like viruses” by oligonucleotide array in a reverse line blot hybridization format. J Clin Microbiol 38: 25952601.
  • Wallis PM, Lehmann DL, MacMillan DA, Buchanan-Mappin JM. 1984. Sludge application to land compared with a pasture and a hayfield: reduction of biological health hazard over time. J Environ Qual 13: 645650.
  • Wang J, Jiang X, Madore HP, Gray J, Desselberger U, Ando T, Seto Y, Oishi I, Lew JF, Green KY, Estes MK. 1994. Sequence diversity of small, round-structured viruses in the Norwalk virus group. J Virol 68: 59825990.
  • White KE, Osterholm MT, Mariotti JA, Korlath JA, Lawrence DH, Ristinen TL, Greenberg HB. 1986. A foodborne outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis. Am J Epidemiol 124: 120126.
  • White LJ, Ball JM, Hardy ME, Tanaka TN, Kitamoto N, Estes MK. 1996. Attachment and entry of recombinant Norwalk virus capsids to cultured human and animal cell lines. J Virol 70: 65896597.
  • Wilde J, Eiden J, Yolken R. 1990. Removal of inhibitory substances from human fecal specimens for detection of group A rotaviruses by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions. J Clin Microbiol 28: 13001307.
  • Wilson IG. 1997. Inhibition and facilitation of nucleic acid amplification. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 37413751.
  • Winn WC. 1999. Enterically transmitted hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E viruses. Clin Lab Med 19: 661673.
  • Witham PK, Yamashiro CT, Livak KJ, Batt CA. 1996. A PCR-based assay for the detection of Escherichia coli shiga-like toxin genes in ground beef. Appl Environ Micrbiol 62: 13471353.
  • Wolfaardt M, Taylor MB, Booysen HF, Engelbrecht L, Grabow WO, Jiang X. 1997. Incidence of human calicivirus and rotavirus infection in patients with gastroenteritis in South Africa. J Med Virol 51: 290296.
  • Zammatteo N, Jeanmart L, Hamels S, Courtois S, Louette P, Hevesi L, Remacle J. 2000. Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays. Anal Biochem 280: 143150.
  • Zhou YJ, Estes MK, Jiang X, Metcalf TG. 1991. Concentration and detection of hepatitis A virus and rotavirus from shellfish by hybridization tests. Appl Environ Microbiol 57: 29632968.
  • Zhou C, Pivarnik P, Rand AG, Letcher SV. 1998. Acoustic standing-wave enhancement of a fiber-optic Salmonella biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 13: 495500.