Indicators and surrogate microorganisms may be used for evaluating safety of fresh or fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products by assessing or validating the effectiveness of microbial control measures. Although frequently used on an informal basis within a specific company, use of indicators is highly dependent upon microbiological criteria that are in place for the specific produce item or category. All the considerations that must be addressed in establishing microbiological criteria must also be in place if indicators are to be utilized in process verification. Sampling design, stringency, and statistical significance are critical to the evaluation of indicators or surrogates in the assurance of food safety. General ideal qualities of indicators and surrogates are valuable starting points when developing a safety program. The importance of selecting the significant target pathogen for the specific product, its source, handling practices, and distribution practices cannot be overemphasized. The same is true for selection of the indicator or surrogate to represent those pathogens. The extensive lists of considerations and procedures should be helpful when using indicators and surrogates with fresh and fresh-cut produce. The use and limitations of indicators and surrogates to determine or validate treatment effectiveness have been delineated. Challenges are identified for selection of an indicator or surrogate for the specific situation and conditions of an individual produce item, including growing, harvesting, processing, handling, storage, and packaging.