Mechanisms and Factors for Edible Oil Oxidation

Authors

  • Eunok Choe,

    1. Author Choe is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, The Inha Univ., Incheon, Korea. Author Min is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Direct inquiries to author Min (E-mail: min.2@osu.edu).
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  • David B. Min

    1. Author Choe is with Dept. of Food and Nutrition, The Inha Univ., Incheon, Korea. Author Min is with Dept. of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Direct inquiries to author Min (E-mail: min.2@osu.edu).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Edible oil is oxidized during processing and storage via autoxidation and photosensitized oxidation, in which triplet oxygen (3O2) and singlet oxygen (1O2) react with the oil, respectively. Autoxidation of oils requires radical forms of acylglycerols, whereas photosensitized oxidation does not require lipid radicals since 1O2 reacts directly with double bonds. Lipid hydroperoxides formed by 3O2 are conjugated dienes, whereas 1O2 produces both conjugated and nonconjugated dienes. The hydroperoxides are decomposed to produce off-flavor compounds and the oil quality decreases. Autoxidation of oil is accelerated by the presence of free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols, metals such as iron, and thermally oxidized compounds. Chlorophylls and phenolic compounds decrease the autoxidation of oil in the dark, and carotenoids, tocopherols, and phospholipids demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity depending on the oil system. In photosensitized oxidation chlorophyll acts as a photosensitizer for the formation of 1O2; however, carotenoids and tocopherols decrease the oxidation through 1O2 quenching. Temperature, light, oxygen concentration, oil processing, and fatty acid composition also affect the oxidative stability of edible oil.

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