SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abe I, Seki T, Umehara K, Miyase T, Noguchi H, Sakakibara J, Ono T. 2000. Green tea polyphenols: novel and potent inhibitors of squalene epoxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 268:76771.
  • Adhami VM, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. 2003. Molecular targets for green tea in prostate cancer prevention. J Nutr 133:2417S24S.
  • Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. 1999. Green tea polyphenols and cancer: biologic mechanisms and practical implications. Nutr Rev 57:7883.
  • Ahmad N, Katiyar SK, Mukhtar H. 1998. Cancer chemoprevention by tea polyphenols. In: IonnidesC, editor. Nutrition and chemical toxicity. West Sussex , U.K. : John Wiley and Sons. p 30143.
  • An B, Kwak J, Son J, Park J, Lee J, Jo C, Byun M. 2004. Biological and anti-microbial activity of irradiated green tea polyphenols. Food Chem 88:54955.
  • Anderson RA, Polansky MM. 2002. Tea enhances insulin activity. J Agric Food Chem 50:71826.
  • Aoshima H, Ayabe S. 2007. Prevention of the deterioration of polyphenol-rich beverages. Food Chem 100:3505.
  • Apostolides Z, Balentine DA, Harbowy ME, Weisburger JH. 1996. Inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) mutagenicity by black and green tea extracts and polyphenols. Mutat Res 359:15963.
  • Apostolides Z, Balentine DA, Harbowy ME, Hara Y, Weisburger JH. 1997. Inhibition of PhIP mutagenicity by catechins, and by theaflavins and gallate esters. Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 389:16772.
  • Arends JW. 2000. Molecular interactions in the Vogelstein model of colorectal carcinoma. J Pathol 190:4126.
  • Arts MJTJ, Haenen GRMM, Wilms LC, Beetstra SAJN, Heijnen CGM, Voss HP, Bast A. 2002. Interactions between flavonoids and proteins: effect on the total antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 50:11847.
  • Azam S, Hadi N, Khan NU, Hadi SM. 2004. Prooxidant property of green tea polyphenols epicatechin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate: implications for anticancer properties. Toxicol In Vitro 18:55561.
  • Balentine DA. 1992. Manufacturing and chemistry of tea. In: Chi-TangH, LeeCY, HuangMT, editors. Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health. Am Chem Soc Symp 506:10217.
  • Balentine DA, Harbowy ME, inventers. 1996. Process for preparation of purified tea components using preconcentration by cream separation and solubilization followed by medium-pressure chromatography and/or preparative HPLC. U.S. patent 5,532,012. Lipton Thomas J Co (US), 07/02/1996.
  • Balentine DA, Wiseman SA, Bouwens LC. 1997. The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:693704.
  • Batchelder RJ, Calder RJ, Thomas CP, Heard CM. 2004. In vitro transdermal delivery of the major catechins and caffeine from extract of Camellia sinensis. Int J Pharm 283:4551.
  • Bendall DS. 1959. Biochemistry of tea fermentation. Annual Report. Tea Research Station. Nyasaland. p 246.
  • Benzie IFF, Szeto YT. 1999. Total antioxidant capacity of teas by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. J Agric Food Chem 47:6336.
  • Berasi SP, Xiu M, Yee AS, Paulson KE. 2004. HBP1 repression of the p47 phox gene: cell cycle regulation via the NADPH oxidase. Mol Cell Biol 24:301124.
  • Bianchi G, Cerhan J, Parker A, Putnam S, See W, Lynch C, Cantor K. 2000. Tea consumption and risk of bladder and kidney cancers in a population-based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 151:37783.
  • Brown AG, Eyton WB, Hohnes A, Ollis WD. 1969. The identification of tbearubigins as polymeric proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 8:233340.
  • Brusselmans K, Vrolix R, Verhoeven G, Swinnen JV. 2005. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by flavonoids is associated with their ability to inhibit fatty acid synthase activity. J Biol Chem 280(7):563645.
  • Cao X, Lewis JR, Ito Y. 2004. Application of high-speed countercurrent chromatography to the separation of black tea theaflavins. J liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 27(12):1893902.
  • Carter O, Dashwood RH, Wang R, Dashwood WM, Orner GA, Fischer KA, Lohr CA, Pereira| CB, Bailey GB, Williams DE. 2007. Comparison of white tea, green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine as inhibitors of PhIP-induced colonic aberrant crypts. Nutr Cancer 58(1): 605.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections—United States 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 46:938.
  • Chatterjee M, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H. 1996. Ultraviolet B radiation-induced DNA lesions in mouse epidermis: an assessment using a novel 32P-postlabelling technique. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 229:5905.
  • Chen C, Liu BY. 2000. Changes in major components of tea fungus metabolites during prolonged fermentation. J Appl Microbiol 89(5):8349.
  • Chen CW, Ho CT.1994. Antioxidant properties of polyphenols extracted from green and black teas. J Food Lipids 2:3546.
  • Chen HY, Yen GC. 1997. Possible mechanisms of antimutagens by various teas as judged by their effects on mutagenesis by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and benzo [a]pyrene. Mutat Res 393:11522.
  • Chen JS. 1992. The effect of Chinese tea on the occurrence of esophageal tumors induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine in rats. Prev Med 21:38591.
  • Chen ZP, Schell JB, Ho CT, Chen KY. 1998. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate shows pronounced growth inhibitory effect on cancerous cells but not their normal counterparts. Cancer Lett 129:1739.
  • Chen ZY, Chan PT. 1996. Antioxidative activity of green tea catechins in canola oil. Chem Phys Lipids 82:16372.
  • Chen ZY, Wang S, Lee KMS, Huang Y, Ho WKK. 2001. Preparation of flavanol-rich green tea extract by precipitation with AlCl3. J Sci Food Agric 81(10):10348.
  • Cherubini A, Beal M, Frei B. 1999. Black tea increases the resistance of human plasma to lipid peroxidation in vitro, but not ex vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 27:3817.
  • Chow HH, Cai Y, Alberts DS, Hakim I, Dorr R, Shahi F, Crowell JA, Yang CS, Hara Y. 2001. Phase I pharmacokinetic study of tea polyphenols following single-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenol E. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:538.
  • Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, Crowell JA, Shahi F, Brooks CA, Dorr RT, Hara Y, Alberts DS. 2003. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Canc Res 9:33129.
  • Chu DC, Juneja LR. 1997. General chemical composition of green tea and its infusion. Boca Raton , Fla. : CRC Press Inc.
  • Chu YH, Hsu HF. 1999. Effects of antioxidants on peanut oil stability. Food Chem 66(1):2934.
  • Chung FL, Wang M, Rivenson A, Iatropoulos MJ, Reinhardt JC, Pittman B, Ho CT, Amin SG. 1998. Inhibition of lung carcinogenesis by black tea in Fischer rat treated with a tobacco-specific carcinogen: caffeine as an important constituent. Cancer Res 58:4096101.
  • Clifford MN. 1999. Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates: nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 79:36272.
  • Cloughley JB, Ellis RT, Pelnlington S, Humphrey P. 1982. Volatile constituents of some Central Africa black-tea clones. J Agric Food Chem 80:8425.
  • Coleman MP, Esteve J, Damieki P, Arslan A, Renard H. 1993. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Lyon , France : Int. Agency for Research on Cancer.
  • Conney AH. 1982. Induction of microsomal enzymes by foreign chemicals and carcinogenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res 42:4875917.
  • Conney AH, Lu YP, Lou YR, Xie JG, Huang MT. 1999. Inhibitory effect of green tea and black tea on tumour growth. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 220:229.
  • Crespy V, Williamson G. 2004. A review of the health effects of green tea catechins in in vivo animal models. J Nutr 134:3431S40S.
  • Curhan G, Willet W, Speizer F. 1998. Beverage use and risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 128:53440.
  • Davies MJ, Judd JT, Baer DJ, Clevidence BA, Paul DR, Edwards AJ, Wiseman SA, Muesing RA, Chen SC. 2003. Black tea consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. J Nutr 133: 3298S302S.
  • Degenhardt A, Engelhardt UH, Lakenbrink C, Winterhalter P. 2000. Preparative separation of polyphenols from tea by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 48(8):342530
  • Diker KS, Akan M, Hascelik G, Yurdakok M. 1991. The bactericidal activity of tea against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Lett Appl Microbiol 12:345.
  • Dong Z. 2000. Effects of food factors on signal transduction pathways. Biofact 12:1728.
  • Donovan JL, Crespy V, Manach C, Morand C, Besson C, Scalbert A, Remesy C. 2001. Catechin is metabolized by both the small intestine and liver of rats. J Nutr 131:17537.
  • Duffy SJ, Keaney JF, Holbrook M, Gokce N, Swerdloff PL, Frei B, Vita JA. 2001. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 104(2):1516.
  • Dufresne C, Farnworth E. 2000. Tea, kombucha, and health. Food Res Intern 33:40921.
  • Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier L, Mensi N, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-hour energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 70:10405.
  • Elliot KAC, Hobbiger F. 1959. GABA circulatory and respiratory effects in different species. J Physiol 146:7084.
  • Esimone CO, Adikwu MU, Nwafor SV, Okolo CO. 2001. Potential use of tea extract as a complementary mouthwash: comparative evaluation of two commercial samples. J Altern Complement Med 7(5):5237.
  • Farhadi A, Banan A, Fields J, Keshavarzian A. 2003. Intestinal barrier: an interface between health and disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:47997.
  • Feng Q, Torii Y, Uchida K, Nakamura Y, Hara Y, Osawa T. 2002. Black tea polyphenols, theaflavins, prevent cellular DNA damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing cytochrome P450 1A1 in cell cultures. J Agric Food Chem 50(1):21320.
  • Ferruzzi MG, Green RJ. 2006. Analysis of catechins from milk–tea beverages by enzyme-assisted extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem 99:48491.
  • Frenkel K, Donahue JM, Banerjee S. 1988. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced oxidative DNA damage. A possible mechanism for promotion by complete carcinogens. In: CeruttiP, FridovichI, McCordJ, editors. Oxy-radicals in molecular biology and pathology. UCLA symposia on molecular and cellular biology. New York : Alan R. Liss, Vol. 82. p 50924.
  • Fujiki H, Yoshizawa S, Horiuchi T, Suganuma M, Yatsunami J, Nishiwaki S. 1992. Anticarcinogenic effects of (–)–epigallocatechin gallate. Prev Med 21:5039.
  • Fukuda I, Sakane I, Yabushita Y, Sawamura S, Kanazawa K, Ashida H. 2005. Black tea theaflavins suppress dioxin-induced transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69(5):88390.
  • Gao CM, Takezaki T, Wu JZ, Li ZY, Liu YT, Li SP, Ding JH, Su P, Hu X, Xu TL, Sugimura H, Tajima K. 2002. Glutathione-S transferases M1 (GSTM1) and GSTT1 genotype, smoking, consumption of alcohol and tea and risk of esophageal and stomach cancers: a case-control study of a high-incidence area in Jiangsu Province, China. Cancer Lett 188:95102.
  • Geissman TA. 1962. The chemistry of flavonoids compounds. New York : The Macmillan Co. 66 p.
  • Goldring MB.1999. The role of cytokines as inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis: lessons from animal models. Connect Tissue Res 40:111.
  • Goto K, Kanaya S, Nishikawa T. 1998. The influence of tea catechins on fecal flora of elderly residents in a longterm care facilities. Ann Long-Term Care 6:438.
  • Goto K, Kanaya S, Ishigami T. 1999. The effects of tea catechins on fecal conditions of elderly residents in a long-term care facility. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 45:13541.
  • Goto T, Yoshida Y, Kiso M, Nagashima H. 1996. Simultaneous analysis of individual catechins and caffeine green tea. J Chromatogr A 749:2959.
  • Graham DY, Lew GM, Klein PD. 1992. Effect of treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection on the long-term recurrence of gastric or duodenal ulcer: randomized controlled study. Ann Intern Med 116:7058.
  • Gramza-Michalowska A, Regula J. 2007. Use of tea extracts (Camellia sinensis) in jelly candies as polyphenols sources in human diet. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16(Suppl 1):436.
  • Gupta S, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. 1999. Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea. Semin Urol Oncol 17:706.
  • Hakim IA, Harris RB, Brown S, Chow HHS, Wiseman S, Agarwal S, Talbot W. 2003. Effect of increased tea consumption on oxidative DNA damage among smokers: a randomized controlled study. J Nutr 133:3303S9S.
  • Halder J, Bhaduri AN. 1998. Protective role of black tea against oxidative damage of human red blood cells. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 244(3):9037.
  • Hamilton-Miller JMT. 2001. Anti-cariogenic properties of tea. J Med Microbiol 50(4):299302.
  • Han C, Xu Y. 1990. The effect of Chinese tea on the occurrence of esophageal tumor induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine in rats. Biomed Environ Sci 3:3542.
  • Hara Y, inventor; Mitsu Norin Co., Ltd. Co., assignee. 1986. Process for the production of tea catechins. U.S. patent 4,613,672. September 23, 1986.
  • Hara Y. 2001a. Antiviral action of tea polyphenols. In: HaraY, editor. Green tea. New York : Marcel Dekker Inc. p 7890.
  • Hara Y. 2001b. Green tea: health benefits and applications. New York : Marcel Dekker. p 13948.
  • Harbowy ME, Balentine DA. 1997. Tea chemistry. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 16:41580.
  • Hay KC, Li K, Cheung NG, Puifung K, Li CL, Pui-Onwong R, Chi KM, Yung E, Fok T. 2005. Prooxidative effects of tea and polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin, on G6PD-deficient erythrocytes in vitro. Obesity Res 13(6):9906.
  • He P, Noda Y, Sugiyama K. 2001. Green tea suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized rats. J Nutr 131:15607.
  • He Q, Lv Y, Yao K. 2007. Effects of tea polyphenols on the activities of α-amylase, pepsin, trypsin and lipase. Food Chem 101(3):117882.
  • He YH, Shahidi F. 1997. Antioxidant activity of green tea and its catechins in a fish meat model system. J Agric Food Chem 45(11):42626.
  • Hecht S. 1999. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1194210.
  • Hegarty V, May H, Khaw K. 2000. Tea drinking and bone mineral density in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 71:10037.
  • Heijnen CGM, Haenen GRM, Wiseman SA, Tijburg LBM, Bast A. 2000. The interaction of tea flavonoids with the NO-system: discrimination between good and bad NO. Food Chem 70:36570
  • Hendel J, Nielsen OH. 1997. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in active inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 92:11703.
  • Hindmarch I, Rigney U, Stanley N, Quinlan P, Rycroft J, Lane J. 2000. A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onset and sleep quality. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 149:20316.
  • Hirsch JB, Evans D. 2005. The state of nutrigenomics. Nutraceut World. Sept: 569.
  • Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. 2002. Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function. Clin Sci 102(2):195201.
  • Hollman PC, Van Het Hof KH, Tijburg LB, Katan MB. 2001. Addition of milk does not affect the absorption of flavonols from tea in man. Free Radic Res 34:297300.
  • Hosoda K, Wang M, Liao M, Chuang C. 2003. Antihyperglycemic effect of oolong tea in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26:17148.
  • Howard GE. 1978. The volatile constituents of tea. Food Chem 4:79106.
  • Hsu SD, Singh BB, Lewis JB, Borke JL, Dickinson DP, Drake L, Caughman GB, Schuster GS. 2002. Chemoprevention of oral cancer by green tea. Gen Dent 50:1406.
  • Hu XF, Yang XQ, Liu KX. 2001. Structure-activity relationship of tea polyphenols. Beijing , China : Beijing Science Press. p 609.
  • Huang J, Huang K, Liu S, Luo Q, Xu M. 2007. Adsorption properties of tea polyphenols onto three polymeric adsorbents with amide group. J Coll Interface Sci 315(2):40714.
  • Huang MT, Ho CT, Wang ZY, Ferro T, Finneganolive T, Lou YR, Mitchell JM, Laskin JD, Newmark H, Yang CS, Conney AH. 1992. Inhibitory effect of topical application of a green tea polyphenol fraction on tumor initiation and promotion in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis 13(6):94754.
  • Huang MT, Xie JG, Wang ZY, Ho CT, Lou YR, Wang CX, Hard GC, Conney AH. 1997. Effects of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on UVB light-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice: demonstration of caffeine as a biologically important constituent of tea. Cancer Res 57:26239.
  • Imai K, Nakachi K. 1995. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. Bri Med J 310:6936
  • Inoue M, Tajima K, Hirose K, Hamajima N, Takezaki T, Kuroishi T, Tominaga S. 1998. Tea and coffee consumption and the risk of digestive tract cancers: data from a comparative case-referent study in Japan. Cancer Causes Control 9:20916.
  • Jayabalan R, Marimuthu S, Swaminathan K. 2007. Changes in content of organic acids and tea polyphenols during kombucha tea fermentation. Food Chem 102:3928.
  • Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G. 1996. The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China. Cancer 77:2449.
  • Jones C, Woods K, Whittle G. 1999. Sugar, drinks, deprivation and dental caries in 14-year-old children in the northwest of England in 1995. Community Dent Health 16:6871.
  • Juhel C, Armand M, Pafumi Y, Rosier C, Vandermander J, Lairon D. 2000. Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J Nutr Biochem 11:4551.
  • Kaack K, Austed T. 1998. Interaction of vitamin C and flavonoids in elderberry (Sambucus nigra) during juice processing. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 52:18798.
  • Kaltwasser J, Werner E, Schalk K, Hansen C, Gottschalk R, Seidl C. 1999. Clinical trial on the effect of regular tea drinking on iron accumulation in genetic haemochromatosis. Gut 43:699704.
  • Kanis J, Johnell O, Gullberg B, Allander E, Elffors L, Ranstam J, Dequeker J, Dilsen G, Gennari C, Vaz AL, Lyritis G, Mazzuoli G, Miravet L, Passeri M, Perez Cano R, Rapado A, Ribot C. 1999. Risk factors for hip fracture in men from southern Europe: the MEDOS study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int 9(1):4554.
  • Katiyar SK, Mukhtar H. 1996. Tea in chemoprevention of cancer: epidemiological and experimental studies (review). Int J Oncol 8:22138.
  • Katiyar SK, Mukhtar H. 1997. Inhibition of phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin by black tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 18:19116.
  • Katiyar SK, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H. 1993. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols administered by oral intubation against chemical carcinogen-induced forestomach and pulmonary neoplasia in A/J mice. Cancer Lett 73:16772.
  • Katiyar SK, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. 2000. Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol 136:98994.
  • Katiyar SK, Bergamo BM, Vyalil PK, Elmets CA. 2001. Green tea polyphenols: DNA photodamage and photoimmunology. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 65:10914.
  • Kavanagh KT, Hafer LJ, Kim DW, Mann KK, Sherr DH, Rogers AE, Sonenshein GE. 2001. Green tea extracts decrease carcinogen-induced mammary tumor burden in rats and rate of breast cancer cell proliferation in culture. J Cell Biochem 82(3):38798.
  • Kerry JP. 2005. Personal communication. Cork , Ireland : Dept. of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Univ. College Cork.
  • Kim J, Zhang X, Rieger-Christ KM, Summerhayes IC, Wazer DE, Paulson KE, Yee AS. 2006. Suppression of Wnt signaling by the green tea compound (–)–epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) in invasive breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 281(16):1086575.
  • Kinzler K, Vogelstein B. 1996. Lessons from hereditary colorectal cancer. Cell 87:15970.
  • Koketsu M. 1997. Antioxidative activity of tea polyphenols. In: YamamotoT, LunejaLR, ChuDC, KimM, editors. Chemistry and applications of green tea. Boca Raton , Fla. : CRC Press Inc. p 3750.
  • Komatsu T, Nakamori M, Komatsu K, Hosoda K, Okamura M, Toyama K, Ishikura Y, Sakai T, Kunii D, Yamamoto S. 2003. Oolong tea increases energy metabolism in Japanese females. J Med Invest 50:1705.
  • Koo MWL, Cho CH. 2004. Pharmacological effects of green tea on the gastrointestinal system. Eur J Pharmacol 500:17785.
  • Kuo CC, Jackson LA, Campbell LA, Grayston JT. 1995. Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR). Clin Microbol Rev 8:45161.
  • Kurihara H, Chen L, Zhu B, He Z, Shibata H, Kiso Y, Tanaka T, Yao X. 2003. Anti-stress effect of oolong tea in women loaded with vigil. J Health Sci 49(6):43643.
  • Kutchera W, Jones DA, Matsunami N, Groden J, McIntyre TM, Zimmerman GA, White RL, Prescott SM. 1996. Prostaglandin H synthase-2 is expressed abnormally in human colon cancer: evidence for a transcriptional effect. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:481620.
  • Lakenbrink C, Lapczynski S, Maiwald B, Engelhardt UH. 2000. Flavonoids and other polyphenols in consumer brews of tea and other caffeinated beverages. J Agric Food Chem 48:284852.
  • Lambert JD, Yang CS. 2003. Mechanisms of cancer prevention by tea constituents. J Nutr 133:3262S7S.
  • Lambert JD, Hong J, Kim DH, Mishin VM, Yang CS. 2004. Piperine enhances the bioavailability of the tea polyphenol (–)–epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice. J Nutr 134:194852.
  • Langley-Evans SC. 2000. Antioxidant potential of green and black tea determined using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Int J Food Sci Nutr 51:1818.
  • Lee MJ, Wang ZY, Li H, Chen L, Sun Y, Gobbo S, Balentine DA, Yang CS. 1995. Analysis of plasma and urinary tea polyphenols in human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4:3939.
  • Lee MJ, Maliakal P, Chen L. 2002. Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (–)–epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:102532.
  • Lee MJ, Lambert JD, Prabhu S, Meng X, Lu H, Maliakal P, Ho CT, Yang CS. 2004. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:1327.
  • Leenen R, Roodenburg AJC, Tijburg LBM, Wiseman SA. 2000. A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:8792.
  • Levites Y, Youdim M, Maor G, Mandel S. 2002. Attenuation of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and cell death by tea extracts in neuronal cultures. Biochem Pharmacol 63:219.
  • Li C, Lee MJ, Sheng SQ. 2000. Structural identification of two metabolites of catechins and their kinetics in human urine and blood after tea ingestion. Chem Res Toxicol 13:17784.
  • Li N, Sun Z, Han C, Chen J. 1999. The chemopreventive effects of tea on human oral precancerous mucosa lesions. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 220:21824.
  • Li P, Wang Y, Ma R, Zhang X. 2005. Separation of tea polyphenol from green tea leaves by a combined CATUFM-adsorption resin process. J Food Eng 67(3):25360.
  • Liao S, Hiipakka RA. 1995. Selective inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes by tea epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 214:8338.
  • Lin YL, Lin JK. 1997. (–)–Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks the induction of nitric oxide synthase by down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kB. Mol Pharmacol 52:46572.
  • Lin YL, Juan IM, Chen YL, Liang YC, Lin JK. 1996. Composition of polyphenols in fresh tea leaves and associations of their oxygen-radical absorbing capacity with antiproliferative actions in fibroblast cells. J Agric FoodChem 44:138794.
  • Lin JK, Lin CL, Liang YC, Lin-Shiau SY, Juan IM. 1998. Survey of catechins, gallic acid, and methylxanthines in green, oolong, pu-erh, and black teas. J Agric Food Chem 46:363542.
  • Lin JK, Liang YC, Lin-Shiau SY. 1999. Cancer chemoprevention by tea polyphenols through mitotic signal transduction blockade. Biochem Pharmacol 58:9115.
  • Lin J, Liang Y. 2000. Cancer chemoprevention by tea polyphenols. Proc Natl Sci CouncROC(B) 24(1):113.
  • Lipinski CA, Lombardo F, Dominy BW, Feeney PJ. 2001. Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in drug discovery and development settings. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 46:326.
  • Liu S, Lu H, Zhao Q, He Y, Niu J, Debnath AK, Wu S, Jiang S. 2005. Theaflavin derivatives in black tea and catechin derivatives in green tea inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41. Biochim Biophys Acta 1723(1–3):27081.
  • Lu YP, Lou YR, Xie JG, Yen P, Huang MT, Conney AH. 1997. Inhibitory effect of black tea on the growth of established skin tumours in mice: effect on tumour size, apoptosis, mitosis, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA. Carcinogenesis 18:21639.
  • Luck G, Liao H, Murray NJ, Grimmer HR, Warminski EE, Williamson MP, Lilley TH, Haslam E. 1994. Polyphenols, astringency and proline-rich proteins. Phytochem Anal 37:35771.
  • Ma QH, Xia Q, Lu YY, Hao XZ, Gu N, Lin XF, Luo D. 2007. Preparation of tea polyphenols-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles based on the phase behaviors of hot microemulsions. Solid State Phenom 121–123:7058.
  • Madara JL, Stafford J. 1989. Interferon-gamma directly affects barrier function of cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers. J Clin Invest 83:7247.
  • Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jimenez L. 2004. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 79:72747.
  • Mandel S, Amit T, Reznichenko L, Weinreb O, Youdim Moussa BH. 2006. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, natural iron chelators-antioxidants for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:22934.
  • Massey L. 2000. Tea oxalate. Nutr Rev 58:889.
  • Matsubara S, Shibata H, Ishikawa F, Yokokura T, Takahashi M, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. 2003. Suppression of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis by green tea extract in Mongolian gerbils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 310:7159.
  • McAnlis G, McEneny J, Pearce J, Young I. 1998. Black tea consumption does not protect low- density lipoprotein from oxidative modification. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:2026.
  • McCarthy TL, Kerry JP, Kerry JF, Lynch PB, Buckley DJ. 2001a. Assessment of the antioxidant potential of natural food and plant extracts in fresh and previously frozen pork patties. Meat Sci 57:17784.
  • McCarthy TL, Kerry JP, Kerry JF, Lynch PB, Buckley DJ. 2001b. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural food/plant extracts as compared with synthetic antioxidants and vitamin E in raw and cooked pork patties. Meat Sci 57:4552.
  • McKay DL, Blumberg JB. 2002. The role of tea in human health: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 21(1):113.
  • Meng X, Sang S, Zhu N. 2002. Identification and characterization of methylated and ring-fission metabolites of tea catechins formed in humans, mice, and rats. Chem Res Toxicol 15:104250.
  • Meselhy MR, Nakamura N, Hattori M. 1989. Biotransformation of (–)–epicatechin-3-O-gallate by human intestinal bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:12038.
  • Miksicek RJ. 1995. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208:4450.
  • Mitsumoto M, O'Grady MN, Kerry JP, Buckley DJ. 2005. Addition of tea catechins and vitamin C on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability during chilled storage in cooked or raw beef and chicken patties. Meat Sci 69:7739.
  • Miura Y, Chiba T, Miura S, Tomita I, Umegaki K, Ikeda M, Tomita T. 2000. Green tea polyphenols (flavan 3-ols) prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins: an ex vivo study in humans. J Nut Biochem 11(4):21622.
  • Miyazawa T. 2000. Absorption, metabolism and antioxidative effects of tea catechin in humans. Biofactors 13:559.
  • Moncada SR, Palmer MJ, Higgs DA. 1992. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 43:10942.
  • Montecucco C, Rappuoli R. 2001. Living dangerously: how Helicobacter pylori survives in the human stomach. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:45766.
  • Moon YJ, Wang X, Morris ME. 2006. Dietary flavonoids: effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism. Toxicol In Vitro 20(2):187210.
  • Morley N, Clifford T, Salter L. 2005. The green tea polyphenol (–)–epigallocatechin gallate and green tea can protect human cellular DNA from ultraviolet and visible radiation-induced damage. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 21:1522.
  • Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. 1999. Green tea in chemoprevention of cancer. Toxicol Sci 52:1117.
  • Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. 2000. Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1698S702S.
  • Murakami I, Nakamura T, Ishibashi Y, Shibuya R, Ayano E, Morita-Murase Y, Nagata Y, Kanazawa H. 2006. Simultaneous determination of catechins and procyanidins in bottled tea drinks by LC/MS. Chromatography 27(1):2733.
  • Muto S, Fujita KI, Yamazaki Y, Kamataki T. 2001. Inhibition by green tea catechins of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450. Mutat Res 479:197206.
  • Muzio LL. 2001. A possible role for the WNT-1 pathway in oral carcinogenesis. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 12(2):15265.
  • Nakagawa K, Okuda S, Miyazawa T. 1997. Dose-dependent incorporation of tea catechins, (–)–epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (–)–epigallocatechin, into human plasma. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61:19815.
  • Nakayama M, Toda M, Okubo S, Shimamura T. 1990. Inhibition of influenza virus infection by tea. Lett Appl Microbiol 11:3840.
  • Nakayama M, Suzuki K, Toda M, Okuba S, Hara Y, Shimamura T. 1993. Inhibition of the infectivity of influenza virus by tea polyphenols. Antiviral Res 21:28999.
  • Natsume M, Osakabe N, Oyama M. 2003. Structures of (–)–epicatechin glucuronide identified from plasma and urine after oral ingestion of (–)–epicatechin: differences between human and rat. Free Radic Biol Med 34:8409.
  • Navarro-Martinez MD, Navarro-Peran E, Cabezas-Herrera J, Ruiz-Gomez J, Garcia-Canovas F, Rodriguez-Lopez JN. 2005. Antifolate activity of epigallocatechin gallate against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:291420.
  • Navarro-Peran E, Cabezas-Herrera J, Garcya-Canovas F, Durrant MC, Thorneley RNF, Rodryguez-Lopez JN. 2005. The antifolate activity of tea catechins. Cancer Res 65(6):205964.
  • Negishi H, Xu JW, Ikeda K, Njelekela M, Nara Y, Yamori Y. 2004. Black and green tea polyphenols attenuate blood pressure increases in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats1. J Nutr 134:3842.
  • Ohe T, Marutani K, Nakase S. 2001. Catechins are not major components responsible for anti-genotoxic effects of tea extracts against nitroarenes. Mutat Res 496:7581.
  • Ohishi T, Kishimoto Y, Miura N, Shiota G, Kohri T, Hara Y, Hasegawa H, Isemura M, 2002. Synergistic effects of (–)–epigallocatechin gallate with sulindac against colon carcinogenesis of rats treated with azoxymethane. Cancer Lett 177:4956.
  • Omori M, Yano T, Okamoto J, Tsushida T, Murai T, Higuchi M. 1987. Effect of anaerobically treated tea (Gabaron tea) on blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 61(11):144951.
  • O'Sullivan A, Mayr A, Shaw NB, Murphy SC, Kerry JP. 2005. Use of natural antioxidants to stabilize fish oil systems. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 14(3):7594.
  • Owuor PO, Obanda M, Nyirenda HE, Mphangwe NIK, Wright LP, Apostolides Z. 2006. The relationship between some chemical parameters and sensory evaluations for plain black tea (Camellia sinensis) produced in Kenya and comparison with similar teas from Malawi and South Africa. Food Chem 97:64453.
  • Pan X., Niu G, Liu H. 2003. Microwave-assisted extraction of tea polyphenols and tea caffeine from green tea leaves. Chem Eng Proc 42:12933.
  • Paola RD, Mazzon E, Muia C, Crisafulli C, Genovese T, Bella PD, Esposito E, Menegazzi M, Meli R, Suzuki H, Cuzzocrea S. 2006. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates zymosan-induced nonseptic shock in mice. Shock 26(4):4029.
  • Pauline T, Dipti P, Anju B, Kavimani S, Sharma SK, Kain AK, Sarada SKS, Sairam M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W. 2001. Studies on toxicity; anti-stress and hepatoprotective properties of kombucha tea. Biomed Environ Sci 14(3):20713.
  • Paveto C, Guida MC, Esteva MI, Martino V, Coussio J, Flawia MM, Torres HN. 2004. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(1):6974.
  • Perva-Uzunalic A, Skerget M, Knez Z, Weinreich B, Otto F, Gruner S. 2006. Extraction of active ingredients from green tea (Camellia sinensis): extraction efficiency of major catechins and caffeine. Food Chem 96:597605.
  • Pietta P, Simonetti P, Roggi C, Brusamolino A, Pellegrini N, Maccarini L, Testolin G. 1996. Dietary flavonoids and oxidative stress. In: KumpulainenJT, SalonenJT, editors. Natural antioxidants and food quality in atherosclerosis and cancer prevention: proceedings of a conference. Cambridge : RSC. p 24955.
  • Piskula MK, Terao J. 1998. Accumulation of (–)–epicatechin metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration and distribution of conjugation enzymes in rat tissues. J Nutr 128:11728.
  • Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, Shin DM, Khuri FR, Hong WK, Glisson BS, Lee JS. 2001. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol 19:18308.
  • Princen H, Van Duyvenvoorde W, Buytenhek R. 1998. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL oxidation in smokers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18:83341.
  • Radi R, Beckman JS, Bush KM, Freeman BA. 1991. Peroxynitrite-induced membrane lipid peroxidation: the cytotoxic potential of superoxide and nitric oxide. Arch Biochem Biophys 288:4817.
  • Rasheed A, Haider M. 1998. Antibacterial activity of Camellia sinensis extracts against dental caries. Arch Pharm Res 21:34852.
  • Rezai-Zadeh K, Shytle D, Sun N, Mori T, Hou H, Jeanniton D, Ehrhart J, Townsend K, Zeng J, Morgan D, Hardy J, Town T, Tan T. 2005. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) modulates amyloid precursor protein cleavage and reduces cerebral amyloidosis in Alzheimer transgenic mice. J Neurosci 25(38):880714.
  • Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. 1995. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radic Res 22:37583.
  • Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1996. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Rad Biol Med 20:93356.
  • Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 2:1529.
  • Richelle M, Tavazzi I, Offord E. 2001. Comparison of the antioxidant activity of commonly consumed polyphenolic beverages (coffee, cocoa, and tea) prepared per cup serving. J Agric Food Chem 49:343842.
  • Riemersma RA, Rice-Evans CA, Tyrrell RM, Clifford MN. 2001. Tea flavonoids and cardiovascular health. Q J Med 94:27782.
  • Robinson EE, Maxwell SRJ, Thorpe GHG. 1997. An investigation of the antioxidant activity of black tea using enhanced chemiluminescence. Free Radic Res 26:291302.
  • Sachinidis A, Hescheler J. 2002. Are catechins natural tyrosine kinase inhibitors? Drug News Perspect 15(7):432.
  • Sai K, Kai S, Umemura T, Tanimura A, Hasegawa R, Inoue T, Kurokawa Y. 1998. Protective effects of green tea on hepatotoxicity, oxidative DNA damage and cell proliferation in the rat liver induced by repeated oral administration of 2-nitropropane. Food Chem Toxicol 36:104351.
  • Sai Ram M, Anju B, Pauline T, Dipti P, Kain AK, Mongia SS, Sharma SK, Singh B, Singh R, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W. 2000. Effect of kombucha tea on chromate (VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol 71:23540.
  • Sakanaka S, Juneja LR, Taniguch M. 2000. Antimicrobial effects of green tea polyphenols on thermophilic spore-forming bacteria. J Biosci Bioeng 90(1):815.
  • Sano H, Kawahito Y, Wilder R, Hashiramoto A, Mukai S, Asai K, Kimura S, Kato H, Kondo M, Hla T. 1995. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 55:37859.
  • Sarkar A, Bhaduri A. 2001. Black tea is a powerful chemopreventor of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: comparison with its individual catechin constituents and green tea. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 284:1738.
  • Sato T, Miyata G. 2000. The nutraceutical benefit, part I: green tea. Nutr Pharmaceutic 16:3157.
  • Seely J, Amigh KS, Suzuki T, Mayhew B, Sasano H, Giguere V, Laganiere J, Carr BR, Rainey WE. 2005. Transcriptional regulation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) by estrogen-related receptor {alpha}. Endocrinology 146(8):36053.
  • Serafini M, Ghiselli A, Ferro-Luzzi A. 1996. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:2832.
  • Seto Y, Lin CC, Endo Y, Fujimoto K. 2005. Retardation of lipid oxidation in blue sprat by hot water tea extracts. J Sci Food Agric 85(7):111924.
  • Shahidi F, Alexander DM. 1998. Green tea catechins as inhibitors of oxidation of meat lipids. J Food Lipids 5(2):12533.
  • Shu YY, Ko MY, Chang YS. 2003. Microwave-assisted extraction of ginsenosides from ginseng root. Microchem J 74:1319.
  • Skibola CF, Smith MT. 2000. Potential health impacts of excessive flavonoid intake. Free Rad Biol Med 29(3/4):37583.
  • Sohn OS, Surace A, Fiala ES, Richie Colosimo JP Jr, Zang S, Weisburger EJH. 1994. Effects of green and black tea on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing systems in the male rats. Xenobiotica 24:11927.
  • Spencer JPE. 2003. Metabolism of tea flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract. J Nutr 133:3255S61S.
  • Stanton HC. 1963. Mode of action gamma aminobutyric acid on the cardiovascular system. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 143:195204.
  • Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JL. 1989. Beyond cholesterol. New Engl J Med 320:91524.
  • Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Solvoll K, Foss O. 1992. Tea consumption, relationship to cholesterol, blood pressure and coronary artery disease mortality. Prev Med 21:54653.
  • Su LJ, Arab L. 2002. Tea consumption and the reduced risk of colon cancer: results from a national prospective cohort study. Pub Health Nutr 5:41925.
  • Su YL, Leunga LK, Huang Y, Chen Z. 2003. Stability of tea theaflavins and catechins. Food Chem 83:18995.
  • Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg E. 1999. Genetic and life-style determinants of peptic ulcer. A study of 3387 men aged 54 to 74 years: the Copenhagen male study. Scand Gastroentero 34:127.
  • Sugita KY, Hara KY, Amano F, Okubo T, Aoi N, Iwaki M, Kumagai S. 1999. Epigallocatechin gallate and gallocatechin gallate in green tea catechins inhibit extracellular release of Vero toxin from entero-hemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Biochim Biophys Acta 1472:4250.
  • Takeo T, Mahanta PK. 1983. Comparison of black tea aromas of orthodox and CTC tea and of black tea made from different varieties. J Sci Food Agric 34:30710.
  • Takino Y, Imagawa H, Harikawa H, Tanaka A. 1964. Studies on the mechanism of the oxidation of the catechins. Part 111, formation of a reddish-orange pigment, its spectral relationship to some benzotropolone derivatives. Agric Biol Chem 28(1):6471.
  • Tang S, Sheehan D, Buckley DJ, Morrissey PA, Kerry JP. 2001. Anti-oxidant activity of added tea catechins on lipid oxidation of raw minced red meat, poultry and fish muscle. Int J Food Sci Tech 36:68592.
  • Taylor PW, Hamilton-Miller JMT, Stapleton PD. 2005. Antimicrobial properties of green tea catechins. Food Sci Tech Bull 2(7):7181.
  • Toda M, Okubo S, Ikigai H, Suzuki T, Shimamura T. 1991. The protective activity of the tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae. J Appl Bacteriol 70:10912.
  • Trevisanato S, Kim Y. 2000. Tea and health. Nutr Rev 58(1):110.
  • Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuju S, Fusamoto H, Kamada T, Sato N. 1992. Mechanism of gastric mucosal damage induced by ammonia. Gastroenterology 102:18818.
  • Tsushida T, Murai T, Omori M, Okamoto J. 1987. Production of a new type tea containing a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 61:81722.
  • Valentova H, Skrovankova S, Panovska Z, Pokorny J. 2002. Time-intensity studies of astringent taste. Food Chem 78:2937.
  • Van Het Hof KH, Kivits GA, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LB. 1998. Bioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milk. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:3569.
  • Van Het Hof KH, Wiseman SA, Yang CS, Tijburg LB. 1999. Plasma and lipoprotein levels of tea catechins following repeated tea consumption. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 220:2039.
  • Varilek GW, Yang F, Lee EY, DeVilliers WJ, Zhong J, Oz HS, Westberry KF, McClain CJ. 2001. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates inflammation in interleukin-2-deficient mice, a model of autoimmunity. J Nutr 131:20349.
  • Vignes M, Maurice T, Lanté F, Nedjar M, Thethi K, Guiramand J, Récasens M. 2006. Anxiolytic properties of green tea polyphenol (–)–epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Brain Res 1110(1):10215.
  • Vinson J, Zhang J. 2005. Black and green teas equally inhibit diabetic cataracts in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes. J Agric Food Chem 53(9):37103.
  • Wang C, Li Y. 2006. Research progress on property and application of theaflavins. Afr J Biotechnol 5(3):2138.
  • Wang H, Helliwell K. 2000. Epimerisation of catechins in green tea infusions. Food Chem 70:33744.
  • Wang H, Provan GJ, Helliwell K. 2000. Tea flavonoids: their functions, utilization and analysis. Trends Food Sci Technol 11:15260.
  • Wang LF, So S, Baik JH, Kim HJ, Moon KS, Park SK. 2004. Aroma changes in green tea beverage during processing and storage. In: ShahidiF, WeerasingheDK, editors. Nutraceutical beverages: chemistry, nutrition and health effects. Washington , D.C. : American Chemical Society. ACS Sym Ser 871:16288.
  • Wang LP, Kempermann G, Kettenmann HA. 2005. Subpopulation of precursor cells in the mouse dentate gyrus receives synaptic GABAergic input. Mol Cell Neurosci 29(2):1819.
  • Wang R, Zhou W, Isabella M. 2007. Comparison study of green tea extract on the quality of bread by instrumental analysis and sensory evaluation. Food Res Int 40(4):4709.
  • Wang X, Tian W. 2001. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate: a natural inhibitor of fatty-acid synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 288:12006.
  • Wang ZY, Wang LD, Lee MJ, Ho CT, Huang MT, Conney AH, Yang CS. 1995. Inhibition of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in rats by green and black tea. Carcinogenesis 16:214348.
  • Warden BA, Smith LS, Beecher GR, Balentine DA, Clevidence BA. 2001. Catechins are bioavailable in men and women drinking black tea throughout the day. J Nutr 131:17317.
  • Watson JL, Ansari S, Cameron H, Wang A, Akhtar M, McKay DM. 2004. Green tea polyphenol (–)–epigallocatechin gallate blocks epithelial barrier dysfunction provoked by IFN-gamma but not by IL-4. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 287:G95461.
  • Wei L, Wei H, Frenkel K. 1993. Sensitivity to tumor promotion of SENCAR and C57BL/6J mice correlates with oxidative events and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis (Lond.) 14:8417.
  • Wei QY, Zhou B, Cai YJ, Yang, Liu ZL. 2006. Synergistic effect of green tea polyphenols with trolox on free radical-induced oxidative DNA damage. Food Chem 96:905.
  • Weisburger JH. 2003. Prevention of coronary heart disease and cancer by tea, a review. Environ Health Prev Med 7:2838.
  • Williamson MP, McCormick TG, Nance CL, Shearer WT. 2006. Epigallocatechin gallate, the main polyphenol in green tea, binds to the T-cell receptor, CD4: potential for HIV-1 therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:136974.
  • Wiseman SA, Balentine DA, Frei B. 1997. Antioxidants in tea. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:70518.
  • Wolfram S, Raederstorff D, Wang Y, Teixeira SR, Elste V, Weber P. 2005. TEAVIGO™ (epigallocatechin gallate) supplementation prevents obesity in rodents by reducing adipose tissue mass. Ann Nutr Metab 49:5463.
  • Wright LP. 2002. Biochemical analysis for identification of quality in black tea (Camellia sinensis) [PhD thesis]. Pretoria : Univ. of Pretoria, South Africa .
  • Wu CH, Lu FH, Chang CS, Chang TC, Wang RH, Chang CJ. 2003. Relationship among habitual tea consumption, percent body fat, and body fat distribution. Obes Res 11(9):108895.
  • Xu J, Sandstro C, Janson JC, Tan T. 2006. Chromatographic retention of epigallocatechin gallate on oligo-β-cyclodextrin-coupled sepharose media investigated using NMR. Chromatographia 64(1/2):711.
  • Yam TS, Hamilton-Miller JMT, Shah S. 1998. The effect of a component of tea (Camellia sinensis) on methicillin resistence, PBP2' synthesis, and β-lactamase production in Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 42:2116.
  • Yamazaki T, Inoue M, Sasaki N, Hagiwara T, Kishimoto T, Shiga S, Ogawa M, Hara Y, Matsumoto T. 2003. In vitro inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on the proliferation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Jpn J Infect Dis 56:1435.
  • Yang CS, Landau JM. 2000. Effects of tea consumption on nutrition and health. J Nutr 130:240912.
  • Yang CS, Wang ZY. 1993. Tea and cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:103849.
  • Yang CS, Chen L, Lee ML, Balentine D, Kuo MC, Schantz S. 1998a. Blood and urine levels of tea catechins after ingestion of different amounts of green tea by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:3514.
  • Yang CS, Chung JY, Yang G, Chhabra SK, Lee M. 2000. Tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention. J Nutr 130:472S8S.
  • Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng X. 2002. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42:2554.
  • Yang G, Liao J, Kim K, Yurkow EJ, Yang CS. 1998b. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 19:6116.
  • Yee YK, Koo MWL. 2000. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Chinese tea: in vitro study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14:6358.
  • Yeng GC, Chen HY. 1994. Comparison of antimutagenic effect of various tea extracts (green, oolong, pouchong, and black tea). J Food Prot 57:548.
  • Yeng GC, Chen HY. 1996. Relationship between antimutagenic activity and major components of various teas. Mutagenesis 11:3741.
  • Yang TTC, Koo MWL. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Chinese tea. Pharmacol Res 35(6):50512.
  • Yang TTC, Koo MWL. 2000. Inhibitory effect of Chinese green tea on endothelial cell-induced LDL oxidation. Atherosclerosis 148:6773.
  • Yilmaz Y. 2006. Novel uses of catechins in foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:6471.
  • Yogeshwer S, Annu A, Pankaj T. 2003. Antigenotoxic potential of certain dietary constituents. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis Supplement 1:32333.
  • Yu GP, Hsieh CC, Wang LY, Ye S, Li X, Jin T. 1995a. Green tea consumption and risk of stomach cancer: a population-based case control study in Shanghai, China. Cancer Causes Control 6:5328.
  • Yu H, Oho T, Xu LX. 1995b. Effects of several tea components on acid resistance of human tooth enamel. J Dent 23:101.
  • Yumei FU, Zhou Y, Zheng S, Chen A. 2006. The antifibrogenic effect of (–)–epigallocatechin gallate results from the induction of de novo synthesis of glutathione in passaged rat hepatic stellate cells. Lab Invest 86:697709.
  • Zhang M, Binns CW, Lee AH. 2002. Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Rev 11:7138.
  • Zhang Y, Hendrich S, Murphy PA. 2003. Glucuronides are the main isoflavone metabolites in women. J Nutr 133:399404.
  • Zheng W, Doyle TJ, Kushi LH, Sellers TA, Hong C, Folsom AR. 1996. Tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 144(2):17582.
  • Zhu N, Huang T, Yu Y, LaVoie EJ, Yang CS, Ho C. 2000. Identification of oxidation products of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin with H202. Agric Food Chem 48(4):97981.
  • Zhu YZ, Huang SH, Tan BKH, Sun J, Whiteman M, Zhu YC. 2004. Antioxidants in Chinese herbal medicines: a biochemical perspective. Nat Prod Rep 21:47889.
  • Zuo Y, Chen H, Deng Y. 2002. Simultaneous determination of catechins, caffeine and gallic acids in green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas using HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Talanta 57:30716.