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ABSTRACT:  Over one-half of foodborne illnesses are believed to be viral in origin. The ability of viruses to persist in the environment and foods, coupled with low infectious doses, allows even a small amount of contamination to cause serious problems. An increased incidence of foodborne illnesses and consumer demand for fresh, convenient, and safe foods have prompted research into alternative food-processing technologies. This review focuses on viral inactivation by both traditional processing technologies such as use of antimicrobial agents and the application of heat, and also novel processing technologies including high-pressure processing, ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiation, and pulsed electric fields. These industrially applicable control measures will be discussed in relation to the 2 most common causes of foodborne viral illnesses, hepatitis A virus and human noroviruses. Other enteric viruses, including adenoviruses, rotaviruses, aichi virus, and laboratory and industrial viral surrogates such as feline caliciviruses, murine noroviruses, bacteriophage MS2 and ΦX174, and virus-like particles are also discussed. The basis of each technology, inactivation efficacy, proposed mechanisms of viral inactivation, factors affecting viral inactivation, and applicability to the food industry with a focus on ready-to-eat foods, produce, and shellfish, are all featured in this review.