Alpha-Lactalbumin: Its Production Technologies and Bioactive Peptides

Authors

  • Samuel Mburu Kamau,

    1. Authors Kamau, Chen, Liu, and Lu are with State Key Lab. of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan Univ., 1800 Lihu Ave., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R. China. Author Kamau is also with Dairy Training Inst., P.O. Box 449, Naivasha 20117, Kenya. Author Cheison is with ZIEL-Junior Research Group: Bioactive Peptides and Protein Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany. Author Cheison is also with School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno Univ., Private Bag, Kisumu, Kenya. Direct inquiries to author Lu (E-mail: lurr@jiangnan.edu.cn).
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  • Seronei Chelulei Cheison,

    1. Authors Kamau, Chen, Liu, and Lu are with State Key Lab. of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan Univ., 1800 Lihu Ave., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R. China. Author Kamau is also with Dairy Training Inst., P.O. Box 449, Naivasha 20117, Kenya. Author Cheison is with ZIEL-Junior Research Group: Bioactive Peptides and Protein Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany. Author Cheison is also with School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno Univ., Private Bag, Kisumu, Kenya. Direct inquiries to author Lu (E-mail: lurr@jiangnan.edu.cn).
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  • Wei Chen,

    1. Authors Kamau, Chen, Liu, and Lu are with State Key Lab. of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan Univ., 1800 Lihu Ave., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R. China. Author Kamau is also with Dairy Training Inst., P.O. Box 449, Naivasha 20117, Kenya. Author Cheison is with ZIEL-Junior Research Group: Bioactive Peptides and Protein Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany. Author Cheison is also with School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno Univ., Private Bag, Kisumu, Kenya. Direct inquiries to author Lu (E-mail: lurr@jiangnan.edu.cn).
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  • Xiao-Ming Liu,

    1. Authors Kamau, Chen, Liu, and Lu are with State Key Lab. of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan Univ., 1800 Lihu Ave., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R. China. Author Kamau is also with Dairy Training Inst., P.O. Box 449, Naivasha 20117, Kenya. Author Cheison is with ZIEL-Junior Research Group: Bioactive Peptides and Protein Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany. Author Cheison is also with School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno Univ., Private Bag, Kisumu, Kenya. Direct inquiries to author Lu (E-mail: lurr@jiangnan.edu.cn).
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  • Rong-Rong Lu

    1. Authors Kamau, Chen, Liu, and Lu are with State Key Lab. of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan Univ., 1800 Lihu Ave., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R. China. Author Kamau is also with Dairy Training Inst., P.O. Box 449, Naivasha 20117, Kenya. Author Cheison is with ZIEL-Junior Research Group: Bioactive Peptides and Protein Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany. Author Cheison is also with School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno Univ., Private Bag, Kisumu, Kenya. Direct inquiries to author Lu (E-mail: lurr@jiangnan.edu.cn).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  Alpha-lactalbumin (α-La), a globular protein found in all mammalian milk, has been used as an ingredient in infant formulas. The protein can be isolated from milk using chromatography/gel filtration, membrane separation, enzyme hydrolysis, and precipitation/aggregation technologies. α-La is appreciated as a source of peptides with antitumor and apoptosis, antiulcerative, immune modulating, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, opioid, mineral binding, and antioxidative bioactivities, which may be utilized in the production of functional foods. Nanotubes formed by the protein could find applications in foods and pharmaceuticals, and understanding its amyloid fibrils is important in drawing strategies for controlling amyloidal diseases. Bioactive peptides in α-La are released during the fermentation or ripening of dairy products by starter and nonstarter microorganisms and during digestion by gastric enzymes. Bioactive peptides are also produced by deliberate hydrolysis of α-La using animal, microbial, or plant proteases. The occurrence, structure, and production technologies of α-La and its bioactive peptides are reviewed.

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