SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abdulkarim BG, Smith JS. 1998. Heterocyclic amines in fresh and processed meat products. J Agric Food Chem 46(11):46807.
  • Ahn J, Grun IU. 2005a. Heterocyclic amines: kinetics of formation of polar and nonpolar heterocyclic amines as a function of time and temperature. J Food Sci 70(2):C1739.
  • Ahn J, Grun IU. 2005b. Heterocyclic amines: 2. inhibitory effects of natural extracts on the formation of polar and nonpolar heterocyclic amines in cooked beef. J Food Sci 70(4):C2638.
  • Alexander J, Reistad R, Hegstad S, Frandsen H, Ingebrigtsen K, Paulsen JE, Becher G. 2002. Biomarkers of exposure to heterocyclic amines: approaches to improve the exposure assessment. Food Chem Toxicol 40(8):11317.
  • Ames BN, McCann J, Yamasaki E. 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutat Res 31(6):34764.
  • Anderson KE, Kadlubar F, Kulldorff M, Harnack L, Gross M, Lang NP, Barber C, Rothman N, Sinha R. 2005. Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo(a)pyrene: associations with pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(9):22615.
  • Arvidsson P, van Boekel MAJS, Skog K, Jägerstad M. 1997. Kinetics of formation of polar heterocyclic amines in a meat model system. J Food Sci 62(5):9116.
  • Arvidsson P, van Boekel MAJS, Skog K, Solyakov A, Jägerstad M. 1999. Formation of heterocyclic amines in a meat juice model system. J Food Sci 64(2):21621.
  • Augustsson K, Skog K, Jägerstad M, Dickman PW, Steineck G. 1999. Dietary heterocyclic amines and cancer of the colon, rectum, bladder, and kidney: a population-based study. Lancet 353:7037.
  • Augustsson K, Skog K, Jägerstad M, Steineck G. 1997. Assessment of the human exposure to heterocyclic amines. Carcinogenesis 18(10):19315.
  • Back YM, Lee JH, Shin HS, Lee KG. 2009. Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea. Food Addit Contam Part A-Chem 26(3):298305.
  • Balbi JC, Larrinaga MT, De Stefani E, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A, Boffetta P, Brennan P. 2001. Food and risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Eur J Cancer Prev 10(5):4538.
  • Balogh Z, Gray JI, Gomaa EA, Booren AM. 2000. Formation and inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried ground beef patties. Food Chem Toxicol 38(5):395401.
  • Bang J, Nukaya H, Skog K. 2002. Blue chitin columns for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from cooked meat. J Chromatogr A 977(1):97105.
  • Berlau J, Glei M, Pool-Zobel BL. 2004. Colon cancer risk factors from nutrition. Anal Bioanal Chem 378(3):73743.
  • Bermudo E, Ruiz Calero V, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2005. Analysis of heterocyclic amines in chicken by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Anal Chim Acta 536(1–2):8390.
  • Bingham SA. 1999. High-meat diets and cancer risk. Proc Nutr Soc 52(2):2438.
  • Bordas M, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2004. Formation and stability of heterocyclic amines in a meat flavour model system: effect of temperature, time and precursors. J Chromatogr B 802(1):117.
  • Borgen E, Skog K. 2004. Heterocyclic amines in some Swedish cooked foods industrially prepared or from fast food outlets and restaurants. Mol Nutr Food Res 48(4):2928.
  • Borgen E, Solyakov A, Skog S. 2001. Effects of precursor composition and water on the formation of heterocyclic amines in meat model systems. Food Chem 74(1):119.
  • Britt C, Gomaa EA, Gray JI, Booren AM. 1998. Influence of cherry tissue on lipid oxidation and heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in ground beef patties. J Agric Food Chem 46(12):48917.
  • Brockstedt U, Pfau W. 1998. Formation of 2-amino-carbolines in pan-fried poultry and 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch A 207:4726.
  • Bross C, Springer S, Sontag G. 1997. Determination of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine, in a cigarette smoke condensate by HPLC with an electrode array detector. Deut Lebensm-Rundsch 93(12):3846.
  • Bruce WR. 1987. Recent hypotheses for the origin of colon cancer. Cancer Res 47(16):423742.
  • Busquets R, Bordas M, Toribio F, Puignou L, Galcerán MT, Borgen E, Skog K. 2004. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in several home-cooked meat dishes of the Spanish diets. J Chromatogr B 802(1):7986.
  • Busquets R, Mitjans D, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2008. Quantification of heterocyclic amines from thermally processed meats selected from a small-scale population-based study. Mol Nutr Food Res 52(12):140820.
  • Busquets R, Puignou L, Galcerán MT, Skog K. 2006. Effect of red wine marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in chicken breast. J Agric Food Chem 54(21):837684.
  • Busquets R, Puignou L, Galcerán MT, Wakabayashi K, Skog K. 2007. Liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry analysis of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in cooked meats. J Agric Food Chem 55(22):931824.
  • Butz P, Edenharder R, Fister H, Tauscher B. 1997. The influence of high pressure processing on antimutagenic activities of fruit and vegetable juices. Food Res Int 30(3–4):28791.
  • Byrne C, Sinha R, Platz EA, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Speizer FE, Willett WC. 1998. Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts. Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prev 7(6):5239.
  • Casal S, Mendes E, Fernandes JO, Oliveira MBPP, Ferreira MA. 2004. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. J Chromatogr A 1040(1):10514.
  • Chan JM, Gann PH, Giovannucci EL. 2005. Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J Clin Oncol 23(32):815260.
  • Chen BH, Chiu CP. 1998. Analysis, formation and inhibition of heterocyclic amines in foods: an overview. J Food Drug Anal 6(4):62536.
  • Chen BH, Lee KH, Tai CY. 2000. Formation of heterocyclic amines in fried fish fibre during processing and storage. J Food Protect 63(10):141520.
  • Chen BH, Meng CN. 1999. Formation of heterocyclic amines in a model system during heating. J Food Protect 62(12):144550.
  • Chen BH, Yang DJ. 1998. An improved analytical method for determination of heterocyclic amines in chicken legs. Chromatographia 48(3–4):22330.
  • Cheng K-W, Chen F, Wang M. 2007. Inhibitory activities of dietary phenolic compounds on heterocyclic amine formation in both chemical model system and beef patties. Mol Nutr Food Res 51(8):96976.
  • Chiu CP, Chen BH. 2000. Stability of heterocyclic amines during heating. Food Chem 68(3):26772.
  • Chiu CP, Yang DY, Chen BH. 1998. Formation of heterocyclic amines in cooked chicken legs. J Food Protect 61(6):7129.
  • Costa M, Viegas O, Melo A, Petisa C, Pinho O, Ferreira IMPLVO. 2009. Heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in barbecued sardines (Sardina pilchardus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J Agric Food Chem 57(8):31739.
  • Cross AJ, Sinha R. 2004. Meat-related mutagens/carcinogens in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Environ Mol Mutagen 44(1):4455.
  • De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Mendilaharsu M, Carzoglio JC, Deneo Pellegrini H. 1998. Dietary nitrosamines, heterocyclic amines and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer 30(2):15862.
  • De Stefani E, Deneo Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A. 1997a. Meat intake, heterocyclic amines and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Int J Oncol 10(3):57380.
  • De Stefani E, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M, Guidobono M, Deneo Pellegrini H. 1997b. Meat intake, heterocyclic amines and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(8):57381.
  • De Stefani E, Ronco A, Brennan P, Boffetta P. 2001. Meat consumption and risk of stomach cancer in Uruguay: a case-control study. Nutr Cancer 40(2):1037.
  • DeBruin LS, Josephy PD. 2002. Perspectives on the chemical etiology of breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl 1):11928.
  • DeBruin LS, Martos PA, Josephy PD. 2001. Detection of PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) in the milk of healthy women. Chem Res Toxicol 14(11):15238.
  • DeMeester C. 1995. Genotoxic potential of beta-carbolines: a review. Mutat Res/Rev Genetic Toxicol 339(3):13953.
  • Eisenbrand G, Tang W. 1993. Food-borne heterocyclic amines. Chemistry, formation, occurrence and biological activities. A literature review. Toxicology 84(1–3):182.
  • Fay LB, Ali S, Gross GA. 1997. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in food products: automation of the sample preparation method prior to HPLC and HPLC-MS quantification. Mutat Res 376(1–2):2935.
  • Felton JS, Fultz E, Dolbeare FA, Knize MG. 1994. Effect of microwave pretreatment on heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens in fried beef patties. Food Chem Toxicol 32(10):897903.
  • Felton JS, Knize MG, Hatch FT, Tanga MJ, Colvin ME. 1999. Heterocyclic amine formation and the impact of structure on their mutagenicity. Cancer Lett 143(2):12734.
  • Felton JS, Knize MG, Roper M, Fultz E, Shen NH, Turteltaub KW. 1992. Chemical analysis, prevention, and low-level dosimetry of heterocyclic amines from cooked food. Cancer Res 52(7):S21037.
  • Friedman M, Zhu L, Feinstein Y, Ravishankar S. 2009. Carvacrol facilitates heat-induced inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and inhibits formation of heterocyclic amines in grilled ground beef patties. J Agric Food Chem 57(5):184853.
  • Friesen MD, Garren L, Bereziat JC, Kadlubar F, Lin DX. 1993. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine in urine and feces. Environ Health Perspect 99:17981.
  • Galcerán MT, Pais P, Puignou L. 1993. High-performance liquid-chromatographic determination of 10 heterocyclic aromatic amines with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr A 655(1):10110.
  • Galcerán MT, Pais P, Puignou L. 1996. Isolation by solid-phase extraction and liquid-chromatographic determination of mutagenic amines in beef extracts. J Chromatogr A 719(1):20312.
  • Gerbl U, Cichna M, Zsivkovits M, Knasmüller S, Sontag G. 2004. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef extract, cooked meat and rat urine by liquid chromatography with coulometric electrode array detection. J Chromatogr B 802(1):10713.
  • Gibis, M. 2007. Effect of oil marinades with garlic, onion, and lemon juice on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef patties. J Agric Food Chem 55(25):102407.
  • Gross GA, Grüter A. 1992. Quantitation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in food products. J Chromatogr 592(1–2):2718.
  • Gross GA, Turesky RJ, Fay LB, Stillwell WG, Skipper PL, Tannenbaum SR. 1993. Heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in grilled bacon, beef and fish, and in grill scrapings. Carcinogenesis 14(11):23138.
  • Gu YS, Kim IS, Ahn JK, Park DC, Yeum DM, Ji CI, Kim SB. 2002. Mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines as affected by muscle types/skin and cooking in pan roasted mackerel. Mutat Res 515(1–2):18995.
  • Gu YS, Kim IS, Park JH, Lee SH, Park DC, Yeum DM, Ji CI, Kim SH, Wakabayashi K, Kim SB. 2001. Effects of seasoning and heating device on mutagenicity and heterocyclic amines in cooked beef. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(10):22847.
  • Guy PA, Gremaud E, Richoz J, Turesky RJ. 2000. Quantitative analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meat using liquid-chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 883(1–2):89102.
  • Hatch FT, Felton JS, Knize MG. 1987. Mutagens formed in foods during cooking. ICI Atlas of Sci: Pharmacol 2:2228.
  • Hatch FT, Lightstone FC, Colvin ME. 2000. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of flavonoids for inhibition of heterocyclic amine mutagenicity. Environ Mol Mutagen 35(4):27999.
  • Hayatsu H. 1992. Cellulose bearing covalently linked copper phthalocyanine trisulphonate as an adsorbent selective for polycyclic compounds and its use in studies of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. J Chromatogr 597(1–2):3756.
  • Hegstad S, Lundanes E, Reistad R, Haug LS, Becher G, Alexander J. 2000. Determination of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in human hair by solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chromatographia 52(7–8):499504.
  • Herderich M, Gutsche B. 1997. Tryptophan-derived bioactive compounds in food. Food Rev Int 13(1):10335.
  • Herraiz T. 2000a. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid compounds in fish and meat: possible precursors of co-mutagenic beta-carbolines norharman and harman in cooked foods. Food Addit Contam 17(10):85966.
  • Herraiz T. 2000b. Analysis of the bioactive alkaloids tetrahydro-beta-carboline and beta-carboline in food. J Chromatogr A 881(1–2):48399.
  • Herraiz T. 2002. Identification and occurrence of the bioactive beta-carbolines norharman and harman in coffee brews. Food Addit Contam 19(8):74854.
  • Herraiz T. 2004. Relative exposure to beta-carbolines norharman and harman from foods and tobacco smoke. Food Addit Contam 21(11):104150.
  • Herraiz T. 2007. Identification and occurrence of β-carboline alkaloids in raisins and inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). J Agric Food Chem 55(21):853440.
  • Holder CL, Preece SW, Conway SC, Pu YM, Doerge DR. 1997. Quantification of heterocyclic amine carcinogens in cooked meats using isotope dilution liquid-chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 11(15):166772.
  • Holland RD, Taylor J, Schoenbachler L, Jones RC, Freeman JP, Miller TW, Lake BG, Gooderham NJ, Turesky RJ. 2004. Rapid biomonitoring of heterocyclic aromatic amines in human urine by tandem solvent solid phase extraction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol 17(8):112136.
  • Hsu HY, Inbaraj BS, Chen BH. 2006. Lack of formation of heterocyclic amines in fumes from frying French fries. J Food Protect 69(9):22306.
  • IARC monographs of the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. 1993. Some naturally occurring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. World Health Organization. Intl. Agency for Research on Cancer. V. 56. Lyon.
  • Jackson LS, Hargraves WA. 1995. Effects of time and temperature on the formation of MeIQx and DiMeIQx in a model system containing threonine, glucose and creatine. J Agric Food Chem 43(6):167884.
  • Jackson LS, Hargraves WA, Stroup WH, Diachenko GW. 1994. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content of selected beef flavours. Mutat Res 320(1–2):11324.
  • Jägerstad M, Skog K. 2005. Genotoxicity of heat-processed foods. Mutat Res 574(1–2):15672.
  • Jägerstad M, Skog K, Arvidsson P, Solyakov A. 1998. Chemistry, formation and occurrence of genotoxic heterocyclic amines identified in model systems and cooked foods. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch A 207(6):41927.
  • Janoszka B, Błaszczyk U, Damasiewicz-Bodzek A, Sajewicz M. 2009. Analysis of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in pan-fried pork meat and its gravy by liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Food Chem 113(4):118896.
  • Jautz U, Gibis M, Morlock GE. 2008. Quantification of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried meat by HPTLC/UV-FLD and HPLC/UV-FLD: a comparison of two methods. J Agric Food Chem 56(22):43119.
  • Jo CH, Sim YE, Lee HM, Ryeom T, Myung SW. 2008. Heterocyclic amines in several types of cooked meat and chicken dishes which form part of the Korean diet. Food Sci Technol Res 14(2):16975.
  • Johansson MAE, Fay LB, Gross GA, Olsson K, Jägerstad, M. 1995a. Influence of amino acids on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in a model system. Carcinogenesis 16(10):255360.
  • Johansson MAE, Fredholm L, Bjerne I, Jägerstad M. 1995b. Influence of frying fat on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beefburgers and pan residues. Food Chem Toxicol 33(12):9931004.
  • Johansson MAE, Jägerstad M. 1994. Occurrence of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in meat and fish products, including pan residues, prepared under domestic conditions. Carcinogenesis 15(8):15118.
  • Johansson MAE, Jägerstad M. 1996. Influence of pro- and antioxidants on the formation of mutagenic-carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in a model system. Food Chem 56(1):6975.
  • Johansson MAE, Skog K, Jägerstad M. 1993. Effects of edible oils and fatty-acids on the formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines in a model system. Carcinogenesis 14(1):8994.
  • Kampman E, Slattery ML, Bigler J, Leppert M, Samowitz W, Caan BJ, Potter JD. 1999. Meat consumption, genetic susceptibility, and colon cancer risk: a United States multicenter case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8(1):1524.
  • Kataoka H. 1997. Methods for the determination of mutagenic heterocyclic amines and their applications in environmental analysis. J Chromatogr A 774(1–2):12142.
  • Kataoka H, Hayatsu T, Hietsch G, Steinkellner H, Nishioka S, Narimatsu S, Knasmuller S, Hayatsu H. 2000a. Identification of mutagenic heterocyclic amines IQ, Trp-P-1, and AαC in the water of the Danube river. Mutat Res 466(1):2735.
  • Kataoka H, Lord HL, Pawliszyn J. 2000b. Applications of solid-phase microextraction in food analysis. J Chromatogr A 880(1–2):3562.
  • Kataoka H, Pawliszyn J. 1999. Development of in-tube solid-phase microextraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of mutagenic heterocyclic amines. Chromatographia 50(9–10):5328.
  • Kato T, Harashima T, Moriya N, Kikugawa K, Hiramoto K. 1996. Formation of the mutagenic/carcinogenic imidazoquinoxaline-type heterocyclic amines through the instable free radical Maillard intermediates and its inhibition by phenolic antioxidants. Carcinogenesis 17(11):246976.
  • Kawamori T, Totsuka T, Uchiya N, Kitamura T, Shibata H, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. 2004. Carcinogenicity of aminophenylnorharman, a possible novel endogenous mutagen, formed from norharman and aniline, in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 25(10):196772.
  • Keating GA, Bogen KT. 2001. Methods for estimating heterocyclic amine concentrations in cooked meats in the U.S. diet. Food Chem Toxicol 39(1):2943.
  • Keating GA, Bogen KT. 2004. Estimates of heterocyclic amine intake in the U.S. population. J Chromatogr B 802(1):12733.
  • Keating GA, Layton DW, Felton JS. 1999. Factors determining dietary intakes of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods. Mutat Res 443(1–2):14956.
  • Keating GA, Sinha R, Layton D, Salmon CP, Knize MG, Bogen KT, Lynch CF, Alavanja M. 2000. Comparison of heterocyclic amine levels in home-cooked meats with exposure indicators (United States). Cancer Causes & Control 11(8):7319.
  • Khan MR, Bertus LM, Busquets R, Puignou L. 2009. Mutagenic heterocyclic amine content in thermally processed offal products. Food Chem 112(4):83843.
  • Khan MR, Busquets R, Santos FJ, Puignou L. 2008. New method for the analysis of heterocyclic amines in meat. J Chromatogr A 1194(2):15560.
  • Kidd LCR, Stillwell WG, Yu MC, Wishnok JS, Skipper PL, Ross RK, Henderson BE, Tannenbaum SR. 1999. Urinary excretion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in white, African-American, and Asian-American men in Los Angeles County. Cancer Epidem Biomarker Prev 8(5):43945.
  • Kikugawa K. 1999. Involvement of free radicals in the formation of heterocyclic amines and prevention by antioxidants. Cancer Lett 143(2):1236.
  • Kikugawa K, Hiramoto K, Kato T. 2000. Prevention of the formation of mutagenic and/or carcinogenic heterocyclic amines by food factors. Biofactors 12(1–4):1237.
  • Knize MG, Cunningham PL, Avila JR, Jones AL, Griffin Jr EA, Felton JS. 1994a. Formation of mutagenic activity from amino acids heated at cooking temperatures. Food Chem Toxicol 32(1):5560.
  • Knize MG, Cunningham PL, Griffin EA, Jones AL, Felton JS. 1994b. Characterization of mutagenic activity in cooked grain food products. Food Chem Toxicol 32(1):1521.
  • Knize MG, Dolbeare FA, Carroll KL, Moore DH, Felton JS. 1994c. Effect of cooking time and temperature on the heterocyclic amine content of fried beef patties. Food Chem Toxicol 32(7):595603.
  • Knize MG, Felton JS. 2005. Formation and human risk of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed from natural precursors in meat. Nutr Rev 63(5):15865.
  • Knize MG, Felton JS, Gross GA. 1992. Chromatographic methods for the analysis of heterocyclic amine food mutagens carcinogens. J Chromatogr 624(1–2):25365.
  • Knize MG, Salmon CP, Hopmans EC, Felton JS. 1997a. Analysis of foods for heterocyclic aromatic amine carcinogens by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 763(1–2):17985.
  • Knize MG, Salmon CP, Mehta SS, Felton JS. 1997b. Analysis of cooked muscle meats for heterocyclic aromatic amine carcinogens. Mutat Res 376(1–2):12934.
  • Knize MG, Sinha R, Brown ED, Salmon CP, Levander OA, Felton JS, Rothman N. 1998. Heterocyclic amine content in restaurant-cooked hamburgers, steaks, ribs, and chicken. J Agric Food Chem 46(11):464851.
  • Knize MG, Sinha R, Rothman N, Brown ED, Salmon CP, Levander OA, Cunningham PL, Felton JS. 1995. Heterocyclic amine content in fast-food meat-products. Food Chem Toxicol 33(7):54551.
  • Knize MG, Sinha R, Salmon CP, Mehta SS, Dewhirst KP, Felton JS. 1996. Formation of heterocyclic amine mutagens/carcinogens during home and commercial cooking of muscle foods. J Muscle Foods 7(3):2719.
  • Krach C, Sontag G. 2000. Determination of some heterocyclic aromatic amines in soap cubes by ion-pair chromatography with coulometric electrode array detection. Anal Chim Acta 417(1):7783.
  • Krul C, Luiten-Schuite A, Baan R, Verhagen H, Mohn G, Feron V, Havenaar R. 2000. Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to study the availability of food mutagens, using heterocyclic aromatic amines as model compounds. Food Chem Toxicol 38(9):78392.
  • Kurosaka R, Wakabayashi K, Ushiyama H, Nukaya H, Arakawa N, Sugimura T, Nagao M. 1992. Detection of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl) imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in broiled beef. Japan J Cancer Res 83(9):91922.
  • Lan CM, Chen BH. 2002. Effects of soy sauce and sugar on the formation of heterocyclic amines in marinated foods. Food Chem Toxicol 40(7):9891000.
  • Lan CM, Kao TH, Chen BH. 2004. Effects of heating time and antioxidants on the formation of heterocyclic amines in marinated foods. J Chromatogr B 802(1):2737.
  • Lee HT, Lin MY, Chan SC. 1994. Formation and identification of heterocyclic aromatic amines in boiled pork juice. Mutat Res 308(1):7788.
  • Lee H, Lin MY, Hao NJ. 1995. Effects of Maillard reaction-products on mutagen formation in boiled pork juice. Mutagenesis 10(3):17983.
  • Liao G, Xu X, Zhou G. 2009. Effects of cooked temperatures and addition of antioxidants on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pork floss. J Food Process Preserv 32(2):15975.
  • Lijinsky W, Shubick P. 1964. Benzo(a)pyrene and other polynuclear hydrocarbons in charcoal-broiled meat. Science 145(3627):535.
  • Manabe S, Kurihara N, Shibutani T, Wada O, Ueki A, Suzuki H. 1993a. Nucleic acids induce the formation of a carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system. Carcinogenesis 14(5):9036.
  • Manabe S, Kurihara N, Wada O, Izumikawa S, Asakuno K, Morita M. 1993b. Detection of a carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine, in airborne particles and Diesel-exhaust particles. Environ Pollut 80(1993a):2816.
  • Manabe S, Suzuki H, Wada O, Ueki A.1993c. Detection of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in beef and wine. Carcinogenesis 14(5): 899901.
  • Mardones C, Arce L, Ríos A, Valcárcel M. 1998. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beefsteak, meat extract, and fish by capillary zone electrophoresis. Chromatographia 48(9–10):7006.
  • Martin FL, Cole KJ, Phillips DH, Grover PL. 2002. The proteolytic release of genotoxins from cooked beef. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293(5):1497501.
  • Martin FL, Cole KJ, Weaver G, Hong GS, Lam BC, Balaram P, Grover PL, Phillips DH. 2001. Genotoxicity of human breast milk from different countries. Mutagenesis 16(5):4016.
  • Martín-Calero A, Ayala JH, González V, Afonso AM. 2007. Determination of less polar heterocyclic amines in meat extracts. Fast sample preparation methods using solid-phase microextraction prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence quantification. Anal Chim Acta 582(2):25966.
  • Matos E, Brandani A. 2002. Review on meat consumption and cancer in South America. Mutation Research 506–7:2439.
  • Melo A, Viegas O, Eca R, Petisca C, Pinho O, Ferreira IMPLVO. 2008a. Extraction, detection, and quantification of heterocyclic aromatic amines in Portuguese meat dishes by HPLC/diode array. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 31(5):77287.
  • Melo A, Viegas O, Petisa C, Pinho O, Ferreira IMPLVO. 2008b. Effect of beer/red wine marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef. J Agric Food Chem 56(22):1062532.
  • Messner C, Murkovic M. 2004. Evaluation of a new model system for studying the formation of heterocyclic amines. J Chromatogr B 802(1):1926.
  • Milic BL, Djilas SM, Canadanovicbrunet JM. 1993. Synthesis of some heterocyclic aminoimidazoazarenes. Food Chem 46(3):2736.
  • Milic BL, Milic NB. 1998. Protective effects of spice plants on mutagenesis. Phytother Res 12(Suppl 1):S3S6.
  • Monti SM, Riteni A, Sacchi R, Skog K, Borgen E, Fogliano V. 2001. Characterization of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil and their effect on the formation of carcinogenic/mutagenic heterocyclic amines in a model system. J Agric Food Chem 49(8):396975.
  • Moonen HJJ, Moonen EJC, Maas L, Dallinga JW, Klinjans JCS, de Kok TMCM. 2004. CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotype/phenotype relations and urinary excretion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a human dietary intervention study. Food Chem Toxicol 42(6):86978.
  • Murkovic M. 2004a. Chemistry, formation and occurrence of genotoxic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried products. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 106(11):77785.
  • Murkovic M. 2004b. Formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in model systems. J Chromatogr B 802(1):310.
  • Murkovic M, Friedrich M, Pfannhauser W. 1997. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried poultry meat. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch A 205(5):34750.
  • Murkovic M, Pfannhauser W. 2000. Analysis of the carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried meat. Fresenius J Anal Chem 366(4):3758.
  • Murkovic M, Steinberg D, Pfannhauser W. 1998. Antioxidant spices reduce the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch A 207(6):47780.
  • Murkovic M, Weber HJ, Geiszler S, Fröhlich K, Pfannhauser W. 1999. Formation of the food associated carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in model systems. Food Chem 65(2):2337.
  • Murray S, Lake BG, Gray S, Edwards AJ, Springall C, Bowey EA, Williamson G, Boobis AR, Gooderham NJ. 2001. Effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption on heterocyclic aromatic amine metabolism in man. Carcinogenesis 22(9):141320.
  • Murray S, Lynch AM, Knize MG, Gooderham NJ. 1993. Quantification of the carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in food using a combined assay based on gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 616(2):2119.
  • Muscat JE, Wynder EL. 1994. The consumption of well-done red meat and the risk of colorectal cancer. Am J Public Health 84(5):8568.
  • Naccari C, Galcerán MT, Moyano E, Cristani M, Siracusa L, Trombetta D. 2009. Presence of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in smoked “Provola” cheese from Calabria (Italy). Food Chem Toxicol 47(2):3217.
  • Navarro A, Muñoz SE, Lantieri MJ, Díaz MP, Cristaldo PE, de Fabro SP, Eynard AR. 2004. Meat cooking habits and risk of colorectal cancer in Córdoba, Argentina. Nutrition 20(10):8737.
  • Nerurkar PV, LeMarchand L, Cooney RV. 1999. Effects of marinating with Asian marinades or western barbecue sauce on PhIP and MeIQx formation in barbecued beef. Nutr Cancer 34(2):14752.
  • Ni W, McNaughton L, LeMaster DM, Sinha R, Turesky RJ. 2008. Quantitation of 13 heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked beef, pork, and chicken by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 56(1):6878.
  • Norat T, Riboli E. 2001. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Nutr Rev 59(2):3747.
  • Norrish AE, Ferguson LR, Knize MG, Felton JS, Sharpe SJ, Jackson RT. 1999. Heterocyclic amine content of cooked meat and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91(23):203844.
  • NTP Report on Carcinogens. 2004. Selected heterocyclic amines. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Natl. Toxicology Program. Eleventh Edition. p 1358.
  • Nukaya H, Koyota S, Jinno F, Ishida H, Wakabayashi K, Kurosaka R, Kim IS, Yamaizumi Z, Ushiyama H, Sugimura T, Nagao M, Tsuji K. 1994. Structural determination of a new mutagenic heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1,7,9-trimethylimidazo[4,5-G]quinoxaline (7,9-DiMeIGQx) present in beef extract. Carcinogenesis 15(6):11514.
  • Oguri A, Suda M, Totsuka Y, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. 1998. Inhibitory effects of antioxidants on formation of heterocyclic amines. Mutat Res 402(1–2):23745.
  • Ohe T. 1997. Quantification of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2 and PhIP contributing highly to genotoxicity of river water. Mutat Res 393(1–2):739.
  • Olsson JC, Dyremark A, Karlberg B. 1997. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with amperometric detection. J Chromatogr A 765(2):32935.
  • Olsson V, Skog K, Lundstrom K, Jägerstad M. 2005. Colour photographs for estimation of heterocyclic amine intake from fried pork chops of different RN genotypes indicate large variations. Food Qual Pref 16(2):91101.
  • Olsson V, Solyakov A, Skog K, Lundström K, Jägerstad M. 2002. Natural variations of precursors in pig meat affect the yield of heterocyclic amines: effects of RN genotype, feeding regime and sex. J Agric Food Chem 50(10):29629.
  • Ono Y, Somiya I, Oda Y. 2000. Identification of a carcinogenic heterocyclic amine in river water. Water Res 34(3):8904.
  • Oz F, Kaban G, Kaya M. 2007. Effects of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines of two different species trout. Food Chem 104(1):6772.
  • Pais P, Knize MG. 2000. Chromatographic and related techniques for the determination of aromatic heterocyclic amines in foods. J Chromatogr B 747(1–2):13969.
  • Pais P, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 1997a. Liquid-chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry with in-source fragmentation for the identification and quantification of fourteen mutagenic amines in beef extracts. J Chromatogr A 775(1–2):12536.
  • Pais P, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 1997b. Liquid-chromatography atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry as a routine method for the analysis of mutagenic amines in beef extracts. J Chromatogr A 778(1–2):20718.
  • Pais P, Salmon CP, Knize MG, Felton JS. 1999. Formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in dry-heated model systems, meats and meat drippings. J Agric Food Chem 47(3):1098108.
  • Pais P, Tanga MJ, Salmon CP, Knize MG. 2000. Formation of the mutagen IFP in model systems and detection in restaurant meats. J Agric Food Chem 48(5):17216.
  • Persson E, Graziani G, Ferracane R, Fogliano V, Skog K. 2003a. Influence of antioxidants in virgin olive oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beefburgers. Food Chem Toxicol 41(11):158797.
  • Persson E, Sjöholm I, Skog K. 2003b. Effect of high water-holding capacity on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beefburgers. J Agric Food Chem 51(15):44727.
  • Persson E, Sjöholm I, Nyman M, Skog K. 2004. Addition of various carbohydrates to beef burgers affects the formation of heterocyclic amines during frying. J Agric Food Chem 52(25):75616.
  • Persson E, Sjöholm I, Skog K. 2002. Heat and mass transfer in chicken breasts. Effect on PhIP formation. Eur Food Res Technol 214(6):4559.
  • Pfau W, Rosenvold K, Young JF. 2006. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate. Food Chem Toxicol 44(12):208691.
  • Pfau W, Skog K. 2004. Exposure to β-carbolines norharman and harman. J Chromatogr B 802(1):11526.
  • Polak T, Andrenšek S, Žlender B, Gašperlin L. 2009a. Effects of ageing and low internal temperature of grilling on the formation of heterocyclic amines in beef Longissimus dorsi muscle. Food Sci Technol 42(1):25664.
  • Polak T, Došler D, Žlender B, Gašperlin L. 2009b. Heterocyclic amines in aged and thermally treated pork longissimus dorsi muscle of normal and PSE quality. Food Sci Technol 42(2):50413.
  • Potter JD. 1996. Nutrition and colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7(1):12746.
  • Prabhu S, Lee MJ, Hu WY, Winnik B, Yang I, Buckley B, Hong JY. 2001. Determination of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and its metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-PhIP by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 298(2):30613.
  • Puignou L, Casal J, Santos FJ, Galcerán MT. 1997. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines by capillary zone electrophoresis in a meat extract. J Chromatogr A 769(2):2939.
  • Reistad R, Nyholm SH, Haug LS, Becher G, Alexander J. 1999. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in human hair as biomarker for dietary exposure. Biomarkers 4(4):26371.
  • Reistad R, Rossland OJ, Latva-Kala KJ, Rasmussen T, Vikse R, Becher G, Alexander J. 1997. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in human urine following a fried meat meal. Food Chem Toxicol 35(10–11):94555.
  • Richling E, Decker C, Haring D, Herderich M, Schraier P. 1997. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines in wine by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 791(1–2):717.
  • Richling E, Haring D, Herderich M, Schreier P. 1998. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) in commercially available meat products and fish by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Chromatographia 48(3–4):25862.
  • Ristic A, Cichna M, Sontag G. 2004. Determination of less polar heterocyclic aromatic amines in standardised beef extracts and cooked meat consumed in Austria by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B 802(1):8794.
  • Rivera L, Curto MJC, Pais P, Galcerán MT, Puignou L. 1996. Solid-phase extraction for the selective isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, azaarenes and heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled meat. J Chromatogr A 731(1–2):8594.
  • RobbanaBarnat S, Rabache M, Rialland E, Fradin J. 1996. Heterocyclic amines: occurrence and prevention in cooked food. Environ Health Perspect 104(3):2808.
  • Rommelspacher H, May T, Salewski B. 1994. Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 252(1):519.
  • Salmon CP, Knize MG, Felton JS. 1997. Effects of marinating on heterocyclic amine carcinogen formation in grilled chicken. Food Chem Toxicol 35(5):43341.
  • Salmon CP, Knize MG, Felton JS, Zhao B, Seow A. 2006. Heterocyclic aromatic amines in domestically prepared chicken and fish from Singapore Chinese households. Food Chem Toxicol 44(44):48492.
  • Salmon CP, Knize MG, Panteleakos FN, Wu RW, Nelson DO, Felton JS. 2000. Minimization of heterocyclic amines and thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli in fried ground beef. J Nat Cancer Inst 92(21):17738.
  • Sanz Alaejos M, Ayala JH, González V, Afonso AM. 2008a. Analytical methods applied to the determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in foods. J Chromatogr B 862(1–2):1542.
  • Sanz Alaejos M, González V, Afonso AM. 2008b. Exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines from consumption of cooked red meat and effect on human cancer risk: a review. Food Addit Contam 25(1):224.
  • Sanz Alaejos M, Pino V, Afonso AM. 2008c. Metabolism and toxicology of heterocyclic aromatic amines when consumed in diet: influence of the genetic susceptibility to develop human cancer. A review. Food Res Int 41(4):32740.
  • Sasaki TA, Wilkins JM, Forehand JB, Moldoveanu SC. 2001. Analysis of heterocyclic amines in mainstream cigarette smoking using a new NCI GC-MS technique. Anal Lett 34(10):174961.
  • Schwab CE, Huber WW, Parzefall W, Hietsch G, Kassie F, Schulte-Hermann R, Knasmuller S. 2000. Search for compounds that inhibit the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of heterocyclic aromatic amines. Crit Rev Toxicol 30(1):169.
  • Scott KA, Turesky RJ, Wainman BC, Josephy PD. 2007. HPLC/Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amine carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine in human milk. Chem Res Toxicol 20(1):8894.
  • Sentellas S, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2004. Optimization of a clean-up procedure for the determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in urine by field-amplified sample injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1032(1–2):193201.
  • Shin HS. 2005. Influence of food ingredients on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked pork patties. Food Sci Biotechnol 14(5):5725.
  • Shin H-S, Park H, Park D. 2003a. Influence of different oligosaccharides and inulin on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation and overall mutagenicity in fried ground beef patties. J Agric Food Chem 51(23):672630.
  • Shin HS, Strasburg GM, Ustunol Z. 2003b. Influence of different unifloral honeys on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation and overall mutagenicity in fried ground-beef patties. J Food Sci 68(3):8105.
  • Shin HS, Rodgers WJ, Gomaa A, Strasburg GM, Gray JI. 2002a. Inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in fried ground beef patties by garlic and selected garlic-related sulfur compounds. J Food Sci 65(11):176670.
  • Shin HS, Rodgers WJ, Strasburg GM, Gray JI. 2002b. Reduction of heterocyclic aromatic amine formation and overall mutagenicity in fried ground beef patties by organosulfur compounds. J Food Sci 67(9):33048.
  • Shin HS, Shin HS. 2003. Factors that affect the formation and mutagenicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines in food. Food Sci Biotechnol 12(5):58896.
  • Shin HS, Ustunol Z. 2004. Influence of honey-containing marinades on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation and overall mutagenicity in fried beef steak and chicken breast. J Food Sci 69(3):C14753.
  • Singh PN, Fraser GE. 1998. Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am J Epidemiol 148(8):76174.
  • Simon R, de la Calle B, Palme S, Meier D, Anklam D. 2005. Composition and analysis of liquid smoke flavouring primary products. J Sep Sci 28(9–10):87182.
  • Sinha R. 2002. An epidemiologic approach to studying heterocyclic amines. Mutat Res 506–507:197204.
  • Sinha R, Brown E, Rothman N, Swanson C, Knize M, Felton J, Levander O. 1996. Exposure assessment of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in epidemiologic studies. FASEB J 10(3):3172.
  • Sinha R, Chow WH, Kulldorff M, Denobile J, Butler J, García-Closas M, Weil R, Hoover RN, Rothman N. 1999. Well-done, grilled red meat increases the risk of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Res 59(17):43204.
  • Sinha R, Knize MG, Salmon CP, Brown ED, Rhodes D, Felton JS, Levander OA, Rothman N. 1998a. Heterocyclic amine content of pork products cooked by different methods and to varying degrees of doneness. Food Chem Toxicol 36(4):28997.
  • Sinha R, Rothman N, Salmon CP, Knize MG, Brown ED, Swanson CA, Rhodes D, Rossi S, Felton JS, Levander OA. 1998b. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings. Food Chem Toxicol 36(4):27987.
  • Sinha R, Kulldorff M, Chow WH, Denobile J, Rothman N. 2001. Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines, meat-derived mutagenic activity, and risk of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10(5):55962.
  • Sinha R, Peters U, Cross AJ, Kulldorff M, Weissfeld JL, Pinsky PF, Rothman N, Hayes RB. 2005. Meat, meat cooking methods and preservation, and risk for colorectal adenoma. Cancer Res 65(17):803441.
  • Sinha R, Rothman N. 1997. Exposure assessment of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in epidemiologic studies. Mutat Res 376(1–2):195202.
  • Sinha R, Rothman N. 1999. Role of well-done, grilled red meat, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in the etiology of human cancer. Cancer Lett 143(2):18994.
  • Sinha R, Rothman N, Brown ED, Mark SD, Hoover RN, Caporaso NE, Levander OA, Knize MG, Lang NP, Kadlubar F. 1994. Pan-fried meat containing high levels of heterocyclic amines but low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induces cytochrom P4501A2 activity in humans. Cancer Res 54(23):61549.
  • Sinha R, Rothman N, Brown ED, Salmon CP, Knize MG, Swanson CA, Rossi SC, Mark SD, Levander OA, Felton JS. 1995. High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are dependent on the cooking method. Cancer Res 55(20):45169.
  • Skog K. 1993. Cooking procedures and food mutagens. A literature review. Food Chem Toxicol 31(9):65575.
  • Skog K. 2002. Problems associated with the determination of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods and human exposure. Food Chem Toxicol 40(8):1197203.
  • Skog K. 2004. Blue cotton, blue rayon and blue chitin in the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines: a review. J Chromatogr B 802(1):3944.
  • Skog K, Alexander J, editors. 2006. Acrylamide and other hazardous compounds in heat-treated foods. Cambridge (England) : Woodhead Pub. Ltd.
  • Skog K, Augustsson K, Steineck G, Sternberg M, Jägerstad M. 1997. Polar and non-polar heterocyclic amines in cooked fish and meat products and their corresponding pan residues. Food Chem Toxicol 35(6):55565.
  • Skog K, Eneroth Å, Svanberg M. 2003. Effect of different cooking methods on the formation of food mutagens in meat. Int J Food Sci Technol 38(3):31323.
  • Skog K, Jägerstad M. 1993. Incorporation of carbon atoms from glucose into the food mutagens MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx using C-14 labeled glucose in a model system. Carcinogenesis 14(10):202731.
  • Skog K, Jägerstad M, Reutersward AL. 1992a. Inhibitory effect of carbohydrates on the formation of mutagens in fried beef patties. Food Chem Toxicol 30(8):6818.
  • Skog K, Knize MG, Felton JS, Jägerstad M. 1992b. Formation of new heterocyclic amine mutagens by heating creatinine, alanina, threonine and glucose. Mutat Res 268(2):1917.
  • Skog K, Johansson MAE, Jägerstad MI. 1998a. Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake. Food Chem Toxicol 36(9–10):87996.
  • Skog K, Solyakov A, Arvidsson P, Jägerstad M. 1998b. Analysis of nonpolar heterocyclic amines in cooked foods and meat extracts using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 803(1–2):22733.
  • Skog K, Solyakov A. 2002. Heterocyclic amines in poultry products: a literature review. Food Chem Toxicol 40(8):121321.
  • Skog K, Solyakov A, Jägerstad M. 2000. Effects of heating conditions and additives on the formation of heterocyclic amines with reference to amino-carbolines in a meat juice model system. Food Chem 68(3):299308.
  • Skog K, Steineck G, Augustsson K, Jägerstad M. 1995. Effect of cooking temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat-products and pan residues. Carcinogenesis 16(4):8617.
  • Smith JS, Ameri F, Gadgil P. 2008. Effect of marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in grilled beef steaks. J Food Sci 73(6):T1005.
  • Smith CJ, Qian XL, Zha QM, Moldoveanu SC. 2004. Analysis of alpha- and beta-carbolines in mainstream smoke of reference cigarettes by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1046(1–2):2116.
  • Solyakov A, Skog K. 2002. Screening for heterocyclic amines in chicken cooked in various ways. Food Chem Toxicol 40(8):120511.
  • Solyakov A, Skog K, Jägerstad M. 1999. Heterocyclic amines in process flavours, process flavour ingredients, bouillon concentrates, and a pan residue. Food Chem Toxicol 37(1):111.
  • Stavric B. 1994a. Antimutagens and anticarcinogens in foods. Food Chem Toxicol 32(1):7990.
  • Stavric B. 1994b. Biological significance of trace levels of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in human diet. A critical review. Food Chem Toxicol 32(10):97794.
  • Stavric B, Lau BPY, Matula TI, Klassen R, Lewis D, Downie RH. 1997. Mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAS) in “processed food flavour” samples. Food Chem Toxicol 35(2):18597.
  • Stavric B, Matula TI, Lau BPY, Klassen R, Lewis D, Downie RH. 1996. Analysis of cold cuts for the presence of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines. FASEB J 10(3):A485, 2799.
  • Steinmann R, Fischer A. 2000. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) in German meat loaf. Fleischwirtschaft 80(5):938.
  • Stillwell WG, Turesky RJ, Sinha R, Skipper PL, Tannenbaum SR. 1999. Biomonitoring of heterocyclic aromatic amine metabolites in human urine. Cancer Lett 143(2):1458.
  • Strickland PT, Qian Z, Friesen MD, Rothman N, Sinha R. 2001. Measurement of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in acid-hydrolyzed urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Biomarkers 6(5):31325.
  • Sugimura T. 1997. Overview of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. Mutat Res 376(1–2):2119.
  • Sugimura T, Nagao M, Kawachi T, Honda M, Yahagi T, Seino Y, Sato S, Matsukura N, Matsushima T, Shirai A, Sawamura M, Matsumoto H. 1977. Mutagen-carcinogens in food, with special reference to highly mutagenic pyrolytic products in broiled foods. In: HiattHH, WatsonJD, WinstenJA, editors. Origins of human cancer, book C. New York , N.Y. : Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press. p 156177.
  • Sugimura T, Nagao M, Wakabayashi K. 1996. Carcinogenicity of food mutagens. Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 3):42933.
  • Sullivan KM, Erickson MA, Sandusky CB, Barnard ND. 2008. Detection of PhIP in grilled chicken entrées at popular chain restaurants throughout California. Nutr Cancer 60(5):592602.
  • Tai CY, Lee KH, Chen BH. 2001. Effect of various additives on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried fish fibre. Food Chem 75(3):30916.
  • Tavan E, Cayuela C, Antoine JM, Trugnan G, Chaugier C, Cassand P. 2002. Effects of dairy products on heterocyclic aromatic amine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 23(3):47783.
  • Thiebaud HP, Knize MG, Kuzmicky PA, Felton JS, Hsieh DP. 1994. Mutagenicity and chemical analysis of fumes from cooking meat. J Agric Food Chem 42(7):150210.
  • Thiebaud HP, Knize MG, Kuzmicky PA, Hsieh DP, Felton JS. 1995. Airborne mutagens produced by frying beef, pork and a soy-based food. Food Chem Toxicol 33(10):8218.
  • Thomson B. 1999. Heterocyclic amine levels in cooked meat and the implication for New Zealanders. Eur J Cancer Prev 8(3):2016.
  • Tikkanen LM, Latva-Kala KJ, Heiniö R-L. 1996. Mutagenic activity, sensory quality and amount of heterocyclic amines in chicken grilled under different conditions. Food Chem Toxicol 34(8):72530.
  • Tikkanen LM, Sauri TM, Latva-Kala KJ. 1993. Screening of heat-processed Finnish foods for the mutagens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Food Chem Toxicol 31(10):71721.
  • Toribio F, Busquets R, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2007. Heterocyclic amines in griddled beef steak analysed using a single extract clean-up procedure. Food Chem Toxicol 45(4):66775.
  • Toribio F, Galcerán MT, Puignou L. 2000a. Separation of heteroaromatic amines in food products. J Chromatogr B 747(1–2):171202.
  • Toribio F, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2000b. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat extracts by liquid-chromatography-ion trap atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 869(1–2):30717.
  • Toribio F, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2000c. Comparison of different commercial solid-phase extraction cartridges used to extract heterocyclic amines from a lyophilised meat extract. J Chromatogr A 880(1–2):10112.
  • Toribio F, Moyano E, Puignou L, Galcerán MT. 2002. Ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of heterocyclic amines in food. J Chromatogr A 948(1–2):26781.
  • Totsuka Y, Takamura-Enya T, Nishigaki R, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. 2004. Mutagens formed from β-carbolines with aromatic amines. J Chromatogr B 802(1):13541.
  • Totsuka Y, Ushiyama H, Ishihara J, Sinha R, Goto S, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. 1999. Quantification of the co-mutagenic beta-carbolines, norharman and harman, in cigarette smoke condensates and cooked foods. Cancer Lett 143(2):13943.
  • Truswell AS. 2002. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel. Eur J Clin Nutr 56(Suppl 1):S19S24.
  • Tsai SJ, Jenq SN, Lee H. 1996. Naturally occurring diallyl disulfide inhibits the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in boiled pork juice. Mutagenesis 11(3):23540.
  • Tsen SY, Ameri F, Smith JS. 2006. Effects of rosemary extracts on the reduction of heterocyclic amines in beef patties. J Food Sci 71(8):C46973.
  • Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Hayashi H, Kato H, Kureshiro H, Hayashi T. 1996. Simultaneous determination of tetrahydro-β-carbolines and β-carbolines. Chromatographia 43(7–8): 41925.
  • Turesky RJ. 2002. Heterocyclic aromatic amine metabolism, DNA adduct formation, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. Drug Metab Rev 34(3):62550.
  • Turesky RJ. 2004. The role of genetic polymorphisms in metabolism of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines. Curr Drug Metab 5(2):16980.
  • Turesky RJ. 2005. Review. Interspecies metabolism of heterocyclic aromatic amines and the uncertainties in extrapolation of animal toxicity data for human risk assessment. Mol Nutr Food Res 49(2):10117.
  • Turesky RJ. 2007. Formation and biochemistry of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meats. Toxicol Lett 168(3):21927.
  • Turesky RJ, Goodenough AK, Ni W, McNaughton L, LeMaster DM, Holland RD, Wu RW, Felton JS. 2007. Identification of 2-amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline: an abundant mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked beef. Chem Res Toxicol 20(3):52030.
  • Turesky RJ, Taylor J, Schnackenberg L, Freeman JP, Holland RD. 2005. Quantitation of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines and detection of novel heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meats and grill scrapings by HPLC/ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem 53(8):324858.
  • Vainiotalo S, Matveinen K. 1993. Cooking fumes as a hygienic problem in the food and catering industries. Amer Ind Hyg Assn J 54(7):37682.
  • Vainiotalo S, Matveinen K, Reunanen A. 1993. GC-MS determination of the mutagenic heterocyclic amines MeIQx and DiMeIQx in cooking fumes. Fresenius J Anal Chem 345(6):4626.
  • Van Dyck MMC, Rollmann B, De Meester C. 1995. Quantitative estimation of heterocyclic aromatic amines by ion-exchange chromatography and electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr A 697(1–2):37782.
  • Vitaglione P, Fogliano V. 2004. Use of antioxidants to minimize the human health risk associated to mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in food. J Chromatogr B 802(1):18999.
  • Vitaglione P, Monti SM, Ambrosino P, Skog K, Fogliano V. 2002. Carotenoids from tomatoes inhibit heterocyclic amine formation. Eur Food Res Technol 215(2):10813.
  • Voskuil DW, Augustsson K, Dickman PW, van't Veer P, Steineck G. 1999. Assessing the human intake of heterocyclic amines: limited loss of information using reduced sets of questions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8(9):80914.
  • Wakabayashi K, Nagao M, Esumi H, Sugimura T. 1992. Food-derived mutagens and carcinogens. Cancer Res 52(7):S20928.
  • Wakabayashi K, Ushiyama H, Takahashi M, Nukaya H, Kim SB, Hirose M, Ochiai M, Sugimura T, Nagao M. 1993. Exposure to heterocyclic amines. Environ Health Perspect 99:12933.
  • Warzecha L, Janoszka B, Blazczyk U, Sróżyk M, Bodzek D, Dobosz C. 2004. Determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) content in samples of household-prepared meat dishes. J Chromatogr B 802(1):95106.
  • Weisburger JH, Veliath E, Larios E, Pittman B, Zang E, Hora Y. 2002. Tea polyphenols inhibit the formation of mutagens during the cooking of meat. Mutat Res 516(1–2):1922.
  • Wild D. 1996. Heterocyclic amines. New and yet old unwanted substances. Fleischwirtschaft 76(1):425.
  • Wild CP, Andersson C, O’Brien NM, Wilson L, Woods JA. 2001. A critical evaluation of the application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies on diet and health. Br J Nutr 86(Suppl 1):S3753.
  • Wong K-Y, Su J, Knize MG, Koh W-P, Seow A. 2005. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in a Chinese population. Nutr Cancer 52(2):14755.
  • [WCRF/AICR] World Cancer Research Fund and the American Inst. for Cancer Research. 1997. In: Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research. Washington , D.C. : American Inst. for Cancer Research.
  • Wu J, Lee HK, Wong MK, Ong CN. 1997. Determination of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in Satay by liquid chromatography. Environ Monit Assess 44(1–3):40512.
  • Wu J, Wong MK, Lee HK, Lee BL, Shi CY, Ong CN. 1996. Determination of heterocyclic amines in flame-grilled fish patty by capillary electrophoresis. Food Addit Contam 13(7):8516.
  • Wu J, Wong MK, Lee HK, Ong CN. 1995. Capillary zone electrophoretic determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in rain. J Chromatogr Sci 33(12):7126.
  • Yu TW, Xu MR, Dashwood RH. 2004. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint. Environ Mol Mutagen 44(5):38793.
  • Zheng W, Gustafson DR, Sinha R, Cerham JR, Moore D, Hong CP, Anderson KE, Kushi LH, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. 1998. Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. J Nat Cancer Inst 90(22):17249.
  • Zimmerli B, Rhyn P, Zoller O, Schlatter J. 2001. Occurrence of heterocyclic aromatic amines in the Swiss diet: analytical methods, exposure estimation and risk assessment. Food Addit Contam 18(6):53351.
  • Zöchling S, Murkovic M. 2002. Formation of the heterocyclic aromatic amine PhIP: identification of precursors and intermediates. Food Chem 79(1):12534.
  • Zöchling S, Murkovic M, Pfannhauser W. 2002. Effects of industrially produced flavours with pro- and antioxidative properties on the formation of the heterocyclic amine PhIP in a model system. J Biochem Biophys Methods 53(1–3):3744.