SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Abstract:  Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. The use of jackfruit bulbs and its parts has also been reported since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities. The beneficial physiological effects may also have preventive application in a variety of pathologies. The health benefits of jackfruit have been attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. This review presents an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological properties of this fruit.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) trees belong to the family Moraceae. They grow abundantly in India, Bangladesh, and in many parts of Southeast Asia (Rahaman and others 1999). It is one the most significant evergreen trees in tropical areas and widely grown in Asia including India. It is a medium-size tree typically reaching 28 to 80 ft in height that is easily accessible for its fruit. The fruit is borne on side branches and main branches of the tree. Average weight of a fruit is 3.5 to 10 kg and sometimes a fruit may reach up to 25 kg. Different parts of jackfruit are shown in Figure 1. There are 2 main varieties of jackfruits: one is small, fibrous, soft, and mushy, and the carpels are sweet, with a texture like that of a raw oyster the other variety is crisp and crunchy, but not very sweet. The large seeds from this nonleguminous plant are also edible, even though they are difficult to digest (Siddappa 1957). A single seed is enclosed in a white aril encircling a thin brown spermoderm, which covers the fleshy white cotyledon. Jackfruit cotyledons are fairly rich in starch and protein (Singh and others 1991). The search for lesser known and underutilized crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal food has included jackfruits which have been the focus of research in recent years.

image

Figure 1–. Different parts of jackfruit: (A) jackfruit; (B) cutting section of jackfruit; (C) jackfruit flesh; (D) jackfruit seed.

Download figure to PowerPoint

The fruit provides about 2 MJ of energy per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth (Ahmed and others 1986). Jackfruit has been reported to contain high levels of protein, starch, calcium, and thiamine (Burkill 1997). The seeds may be boiled, or roasted and eaten or boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts. Roasted, dried seeds are ground to make flour that is blended with wheat flour for baking (Morton 1987). The composition of jackfruit perianth and seed has been reported (Bobbio and others 1978; Morton 1987; Selvaraj and Pal 1989; Hossain and others 1990; Rahman and others 1999). At least one study has reported on functional properties of jackfruit flour (Odoemelam 2005).

In addition to its ripe fruit, which has a unique flavor, the jackfruit seed is widely consumed as a dessert or an ingredient in Asian culinary preparations. The jackfruit seeds are used in cooked dishes and its flour is used for baking. Jackfruit seeds are fairly rich in starch (Singh and others 1991). Mature jackfruits are cooked as vegetables, and used in curries or salads (Narasimham 1990). Ripe fruits can be eaten raw, or cooked in creamy coconut milk as dessert, made into candied jackfruit or edible jackfruit leather. In India, the seeds are boiled in sugar and eaten as dessert (Roy and Joshi 1995). Jackfruit is also used for further processing. For instance, jackfruit leather and jackfruit chips can be made from dried jackfruit pulp (Nakasone and Paull 1998). Pureed jackfruit is also manufactured into baby food, juice, jam, jelly, and base for cordials (Roy and Joshi 1995). Jackfruits are made into candies, fruit-rolls, marmalades, and ice cream. Other than canning, advances in processing technologies too, have pushed toward more new products (Narasimham 1990). Freeze-dried, vacuum-fried, and cryogenic processing are new preservation methods for modern jackfruit-based products. Various parts of the jackfruit tree have been used in medicine and its wood as an important source in the timber industries (Roy and Joshi 1995).

It is now widely accepted that the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables for the prevention of certain diseases are due to the bioactive compounds they contain (Galaverna and others 2008). Recent years have seen increased interest on the part of consumers, researchers, and the food industries into how food products can help maintain health; and the role that diet plays in the prevention and treatment of many illnesses has become widely accepted (Vinuda-Martos and others 2010). The aim of this review was to present an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological properties of the jackfruit.

Phytochemistry

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

A. heterophyllus contains various chemical constituents as several flavone colorings, morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, and artocarpanone (Rama Rao and others 1973). The heartwood of jackfruit on analysis yields moisture (6.7%), glucosides (38.0%), lipids (0.7%), protein (1.7%), and cellulose (59.0 %) (Perkin and Cope 1895). The jackfruit also contains free sugar (sucrose), fatty acids, ellagic acid, and amino acids like arginine, cystine, histidine, leucine, lysine, metheonine, theonine, tryptophan, and others. (Pavanasasivam and Sultanbawa 1973). Bark from the main trunk contains betullic acid and two new flavone pigments including cycloheterophyllin (C30H30O7) (Chawdhary and Raman 1997). Heterophylol, a phenolic compound with a novel skeleton, was obtained from A.heterophyllus (Chun-Nan and Chai-Ming 1993). The leaves and stem have shown the presence of sapogenins, cycloartenone, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol (Nath and Chaturvedi 1989), and tannins, and they have shown estrogenic activity. The root contains β-sitosterol, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, and cycloartenone (Dayal and Seshadri 1974).

Jacalin, the major protein from A. heterophyllus seeds, is a tetrameric two-chain lectin combining a heavy chain of 133 amino acid residues with a light βchain of 20 to 21 amino acid residues. It is highly specific for the O-glycoside of the disaccharide Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc), even in its sialylated form. This property has made jacalin suitable for studying various O-linked glycoproteins, particularly human IgA1 (Suresh Kumar and others 1982). Jacalin's uniqueness in being strongly mitogenic for human CD4+T lymphocytes has made it a useful tool for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 (Pereira-da-Silva and others 2006). Two novel 2′,4′,6′-trioxygenated flavanones, heteroflavanones A and B, were isolated from the root bark of A. heterophyllus. Their structures were elucidated as 5-hydroxy-7,2′,4′,6′-tetra methoxyflavanone and 8-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl) 5-hydroxy-7,2′,4′,6′-tetra methoxyflavanone (Chai-Ming and Chun-Nan 1993; Chun-Nan and others 1995). Three phenolic compounds were characterized as artocarpesin [(5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6-β-methylbut-3-enyl) flavone], norartocarpetin (5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone), and oxyresveratrol (trans-2,4,3′,5′-tetrahydroxystilbene) by spectroscopic methods (Venkataraman 2001) . The anti-inflammatory effects of these isolated compounds were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. These 3 compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity (Jha and others 1997). The carotenoids of A. heterophyllus were identified as the carotenes β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, as well as a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin (Chandrika and others 2004).

Chemical Composition of Jackfruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Jackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc, and niacin among many other nutrients. Jackfruit has a low caloric content: 100 g of jackfruit only contains 94 calories (Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul 2004). Jackfruit is a rich source of potassium with 303 mg found in 100 g of jackfruit. Studies show that food rich in potassium helps to lower blood pressure.

Another benefit of eating jackfruit is that it is a good source of vitamin C. The human body does not make vitamin C so one must eat food that contains vitamin C to reap its health benefits. The health benefits of vitamin C are that it is an antioxidant that protects the body against free radicals, strengthens the immune system, and keeps our gums healthy (Umesh and others 2010).

Jackfruit contains phytonutrients: lignans, isoflavones, and saponins that have health benefits that are wide ranging. These phytonutrients have anticancer, antihypertensive, antiulcer and antiaging properties. The phytonutrients found in jackfruit, therefore, can prevent forming of cancer cells in the body, can lower blood pressure, can fight against stomach ulcers, and can slow down the degeneration of cells that make the skin look young and vitae. Jackfruit also contains niacin that is known as vitamin B3 and necessary for energy metabolism, nerve function, and the synthesis of certain hormones. A portion of 100 g of jackfruit pulp provides 4 mg niacin (Soobrattee and others 2005). The recommended daily amount for niacin is 16 mg for males and 14 mg for females. (Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000).

Jackfruit root has been found to help those suffering from asthma. Boiling the root of the jackfruit and extracting and consuming it with its high nutritional content have been found to control asthma. Jackfruit root has also been used to treat skin problems. The extract of jackfruit root is believed to be able to help cure diarrhea and fever (Samaddar 1985).

Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

The jackfruit is a rich source of phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, and offers opportunities for the development of value-added products, such as neutraceutical and food applications to enhance health benefits (Umesh and others 2010).

Phytonutrients are natural compounds found in plant-based foods that give plants their rich pigmentation, as well as their distinctive taste and aroma. They are essentially the plant's immune system and offer protection to humans as well (Umesh and others 2010). There are thousands of phytonutrients that may help prevent cancer as well as provide other health benefits (Ko and others 1998). Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring polycyclic phenols found in certain plants that may, when ingested and metabolized, have weak estrogenic effects. Two important groups of phytoestrogens are isoflavones and lignans present in jackfruit pulp.

Phenolic Compounds

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Total phenolic content in jackfruit is 0.36 mg GAE/100 g DW [milligrams of Gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight] (Wongsa and Zamaluddien 2005). Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been recognized for reducing risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (Dembinska-Kice and others 2008). Phenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables have been suggested to be a major source of bioactive compounds for health benefits. However, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were underestimated in their inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant to hyperglycemia. Natural sources of phenolic compounds and inhibitors of digestive enzymes from food sources have provided an opportunity for low-cost dietary management for cardiovascular diseases (McDougall and others 2005).

Natural polyphenol can range from simple molecules (phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids) to highly polymerized compounds (lignins, melanins, tannins), with flavonoids representing the most common and widely distributed subgroup (Soobrattee and others 2005). Chemically phenolic acids can be defined as substances that possess an aromatic ring bound to one or more hydrogenated substituents, including their functional derivatives (Marine and others 2001). Flavonoids are low-molecular-weight compounds consisting of 15 carbon atoms, arranged in a C6-C3-C6 configuration. Essentially, the structure consists of 2 aromatic rings joined by a 3-carbon bridge, usually in the form of a heterocyclic ring (Balasundram and others 2006).

Antioxidants

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

The pulp of ripe jackfruit is eaten fresh and used in fruit salads. It possesses high nutritional value; every 100 g of ripe fruit pulp contains 18.9 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 77% moisture, 1.1 g fiber, 0.8 g total mineral matter, 20 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 500 mg iron, 540 I.U. vitamin A, 30 mg thiamin, and 84 calories (Samaddar 1985). The jackfruit also contains (Table 1) useful antioxidant compounds (Ko and others 1998).

Table 1–.  Composition of jackfruit (100 g edible portion).
Sr. No Composition Young fruit Ripe fruit Seed
AProximate analysis
1Water (g)76.2 to 85.272.0 to 94.051.0 to 64.5
2Protein (g)2.0 to 2.61.2 to 1.96.6 to 7.04
3Fat (g)0.1 to 0.60.1 to 0.40.40 to 0.43
4Carbohydrate (g)9.4 to 11.516.0 to 25.425.8 to 38.4
5Fibre (g)2.6 to 3.61.0 to 1.51.0 to 1.5
6Total sugars (g)20.6
BMinerals and vitamins
1Total minerals (g)0.90.87 to 0.90.9 to 1.2
2Calcium (mg)30.0 to 73.220.0 to 37.050.0
3Magnesium (mg) 27.054.0
4Phosphorus (mg)20.0 to 57.238.0 to 41.038.0 to 97.0
5Potassium (mg)287 to 323191 to 407246
6Sodium (mg)3.0 to 35.02.0 to 41.063.2
7Iron (mg)0.4 to 1.90.5 to 1.11.5
8Vitamin A (IU)30175 to 54010 to 17
9Thiamine (mg)0.05 to 0.150.03 to 0.090.25
10Riboflavin (mg)0.05 to 0.20.05 to 0.40.11 to 0.3
11Vitamin C (mg)12.0 to 14.07.0 to 10.011.0

Among the chemical constituents (Table 2) jackfruit contains useful antioxidants (Devasagayam and others 2001), which prevent many human diseases. Antioxidants’ are substances that neutralize free radicals or their actions (Sies 1996). Nature has endowed each cell with adequate protective mechanisms against the harmful effects of free radicals: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, thioredoxin, thiols, and disulfide bonding are buffering systems in every cell. Antioxidants regarded as compounds are able to delay, retard, or prevent the oxidation process (Halliwell 1997). The natural antioxidants in fruits and vegetables have gained increasing interest among food scientists, nutrition specialists, and consumers, as they are claimed to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and promote human health (Ribeiro and others 2007).

Table 2–.  Epidemiological studies on antioxidants in human from jackfruit.
Sr. No Diseases Antioxidants
1Gastric cancerVit E, β-carotene, selenium
2Lung cancer in smokersVit E, β-carotene and both together
3Prostate cancerVit E
4Lung cancer in workers exposed to asbestosβ-Carotene + vit A
5Myocardial infarctionVit E
6Coronary heart diseaseβ-caroten
7HypertensionVit C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble free radical scavenger. The daily recommended dietary allowance is 60 mg. In jackfruit 12 to 14 mg vitamin C is present per 100 g (Narasimham 1990), which is the part of the normal protecting antioxidant. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is an essential nutrient that functions as a chain-breaking antioxidant and can prevent the propagation of free radical reactions on all cell membranes of the human body. Other nonenzymatic antioxidants include carotenoids, flavonoids, and related polyphenols, such as α-lipoic acid and glutathione. Apart from the carotenoids beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein, other carotenoids also function as important antioxidants and they quench 1O2. They are mainly present as coloring pigments in plants and also function as potent antioxidants at various levels (Sies 1996; Cadenas and Packer 1996; Kagan and others 2002).

Carotenoid Composition

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

The jackfruit contains many carotenoids (De Faria and others 2009), including all-trans-β-carotene which an important anntioxidant for human health (Cadenas and Packer 1996). Jackfruit- containing carotenoids can be important for the prevention of several chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (Krinsky and others 2003; Stahl and Sies 2005). The carotenoids present in jackfruit are shown in Table 3.

Table 3–.  Concentration (μg/100 g fresh weight) of carotenoids in different jackfruit.
Carotenoids Values Carotenoids Values
All-trans-neoxanthin8.85 ± 5.73All-trans-zeinoxanthin1.72 ± 1.20
9-cis-Neoxanthin6.87 ± 4.259-cis-Zeinoxanthin0.90 ± 1.12
All-trans-neochrome0.88 ± 1.11All-trans-α-cryptoxanthin0.35 ± 0.60
All-trans-luteoxanthin2.06 ± 0.90All-trans-β-cryptoxanthin1.21 ± 0.45
cis-Antheraxanthin1.12 ± 0.3615-cis-β-Carotene0.18 ± 0.31
9-cis-Violaxanthin7.05 ± 5.9713-cis-β-Carotene2.45 ± 1.40
cis-Luteoxanthin0.34 ± 0.42All-trans-α-carotene1.24 ± 0.93
All-trans-lutein37.02 ± 20.34All-trans-β-carotene29.55 ± 15.46
All-trans-zeaxanthin0.96 ± 1.209-cis-β-Carotene0.79 ± 0.30
  Total carotenoids107.98 ± 51.46

The main carotenoids in jackfruit were shown to be all-trans-lutein (24% to 44%), all-trans-β-carotene (24% to 30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4% to 19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4% to 9%), and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4% to 10%) (De Faria and others 2009). Since inconclusive or incorrect identification of carotenoids present in jackfruit is found in the literature, it is strongly recommended to accomplish a correction in the future of these carotenoids (Pfander and others 1994; Liaaen-Jensen 1995; Schiedt and Liaaen-Jensen 1995; De Rosso and Mercadante 2007). The major carotenoids from jackfruit were determined by open column or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by Tee and Lim (1991), Setiawan and others (2001), and Chandrika and others (2005).

However, De Faria and others (2009) claim the minimum criteria for analysis were not fulfilled for the carotenoid identification and were only based on the elution order on the chromatographic system, UV-visible spectra characteristics, and sometimes chemical reactions. This identification procedure also resulted in the identification of crocetin, among other carotenoids, in jackfruit (Chandrika and others 2005). However, up to now, crocetin and its derivatives were only found in saffron and gardenia (Pfister and others 1996; Caballero-Ortega and others 2007). Lycopene was also identified, despite the soft color of the jackfruit pulp (Setiawan and others 2001). Some 18 carotenoids were successfully separated, identified, and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS; and 14 were detected for the first time in jackfruit (De Faria and others 2009). Chandrika and others (2005) studied the carotenoid composition of jackfruit (A. heterophyllus sinhala: Waraka) kernel using HPLC and visible spectrophotometry and to determine the bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids present in jackfruit kernel by monitoring (i) the growth and (ii) levels of retinol and carotenoids in the liver and serum of Wistar rats provided with jackfruit incorporated into a standard daily diet. Carotenoid pigments were extracted using petroleum ether/methanol and saponified using 10% methanolic potassium hydroxide. Six carotenoids were detected in jackfruit kernel. The carotenes β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide and a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin, were identified, corresponding theoretically to 141.6 retinol equivalents (RE) per 100 g. Jackfruit is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids, though not as good as papaya (Chandrika and others 2005). Thus, increased consumption of ripe jackfruit could be advocated as part of a strategy to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble, secondary plant metabolites in jackfruit and other fruits reported to confer positive health-promoting effects when consumed in the diet, and plant carotenoids are the most important source of provitamin A in the human diet (Kopsell and Kopsell 2006). There is increasing evidence that these carotenoids can protect humans against certain specific chronic ailments, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration (Mayne 1996; Giovannucci 1999). From a dietary standpoint, carotenoids are common examples of compounds classified as antioxidants. Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many foods and are related to important functions and physiological actions, preventing several chronic-degenerative diseases. Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many fruits, vegetables, animals, algae, and microorganisms. Besides their colorant properties, carotenoids are related to important functions, especially physiological actions.

The important role that carotenoids perform in plants, and the potential positive benefit they impart on human health, has stimulated increased interest in this group of secondary plant metabolites.

Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

There is no one definition of the term functional food. It is used in many contexts, including references to technological advances, food marketing, and food regulatory norms (Palou and others 2003). This term has already been defined several times (Roberfroid 2002) and there is still no unified accepted definition for this group of foods (Alzamora and others 2005). In most countries, there is no legal definition of the term and drawing a border line between conventional and functional foods is challenging even for nutrition and food experts (Niva 2007).

Several working definitions used by professional groups and marketers have been proposed by various organizations in several countries.

In the United States, functional foods are not officially recognized as a regulatory category by the FDA. However, several organizations have proposed definitions for this rapidly growing food category, most notably the International Food Information Council (IFIC) and the Institute of Food Technologists. The IFIC considers as functional foods those that include any food or food component that may have health benefits beyond basic nutrition (IFIC 2009). Similarly, a recent report of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT 2009) defined functional foods as “foods and food components that provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition (for the intended population). These substances provide essential nutrients often beyond quantities necessary for normal maintenance, growth, and development, and/or other biologically active components that impart health benefits or desirable physiological effects.”

The European Commission (EC) Concerted Action on Functional Food Science in Europe regards a food as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way that is relevant to either an improved state of health and well being and/or reduction of risk of disease. In this context, functional foods are not pills or capsules, but must remain foods and they must demonstrate their effects in amounts that can normally be expected to be consumed in the diet (European Commission 1999).

The concept of functional food is complex and may refer to many possible aspects, including food obtained by any process, whose particular characteristic is that one or more of its components, whether or not that component is itself a nutrient, affects the target function of the organism in a specific and positive way, promoting a physiological or psychological effect beyond the merely nutritional (Vinuda-Martos and others 2010).

The positive effect of a functional food may include the maintenance of health or well being, or a reduction in the risk of suffering a given illness (Alvarez and others 2003). Functional food may be obtained by modifying one or more of the ingredients, or by eliminating the same (Alvarez and others 2003). To develop these types of products, one must evaluate consumer perceptions, the most important quality aspects being that they taste good, appear wholesome, and have nutritional value (Garciıa-Segovia and others 2007). Also, Alvarez and others (2003) describe that any functional food must be safe, wholesome, and tasty.

Jackfruit conforms to this definition in several ways, although the establishment of any function would involve identifying the bioactive components to help specify their possible beneficial effects on health.

Functional Properties

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

At present, there is great interest in the scientific community in the functional properties of jackfruit (antioxidant, anticancer, or to fight vascular diseases and skin diseases) and its derivates such as wafers, chips, seed flour, peel, and so on. The jackfruit could be considered a functional food because it has valuable compounds in different parts of the fruit that display functional and medicinal effects (Figure 2).

image

Figure 2–. Principal functional and medicinal effects of jackfruit.

Download figure to PowerPoint

The very concept of food is changing from a past emphasis on health maintenance to the promising use of foods to promote better health to prevent chronic illnesses. “Functional foods” are those that provide more than simple nutrition; they supply additional physiological benefit to the consumer. Because dietary habits are specific to populations and vary widely, it is necessary to study the disease-preventive potential of functional micronutrients in the regional diets. Indian food constituents such as spices, as well as medicinal plants with increased levels of essential vitamins and nutrients (such as vitamin E, lycopene, vitamin C, bioflavonoids, thioredoxin), provide a rich source of compounds like antioxidants that can be used in functional foods (Devasagayam and others 2004). We agree with Lansky and Newman (2007) who indicated that much deeper investigation into this rapidly growing field is required to assess the overall value and safety of jackfruit as an intact fruit or of various extracts derived from jackfruit components.

Jackfruit seed powder contains manganese and magnesium elements (Barua and Boruah 2004). Seeds also contain 2 lectins namely jacalin and artocarpin. Jacalin has been proved to be useful for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (Haq 2006).

Theivasanthi and Alagar (2011) studied the antibacterial effect of nanosized particles of Jackfruit seed against E. coli and B. megaterium microbes and revealed the efficacy of jackfruit seed nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent. Specific surface area (SSA) of jackfruit seed nanoparticles has concluded that jackfruit seed nanoparticles can lend antimicrobial effects to hundreds of square meters of its host material. Jackfruit seeds may therefore be developed into therapeutic agents capable of treating infectious diseases and preventing food contamination by food-borne pathogens. Jackfruit seeds could be processed into dual-functional food ingredients possessing antimicrobial activities. Likewise, analysis results of SSA of 2 different bacteria conclude that SSA of bacteria plays a major role while reacting with antimicrobial agents. This study suggests that jackfruit seed powder has a lot of potential in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper, bio-nanotechnology industries, especially its uses as thickener and binding agent.

Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Jackfruit seed contains phenolic compounds (Soong and Philip Barlow 2004) and about 6.03 mg/g extracted nonreducing sugar (Nualla-ong and others 2009) that is a prebiotoc. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients. It is a part of oligosaccharide and nonreducing sugar that stimulate the growth and activity of bacteria in the digestive system that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Prebiotics are carbohydrate. The composition of food classified as prebiotics include oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, such as fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, and xylo-oligosaccharide, which are nonreducing sugar.

Prebioteics can be extracted by cleaning the jackfruit seed with water then grounded in a blender to size of 1 to 2 mm. The seeds can be extracted with 50% ethanol using batch extractor. To concentrate the extract solution it should be filtered by vacuum filter and then evaporated by rotary vacuum evaporator. Evaporated extract of jackfruit seed can be crystallized. The crystallizing temperature of prebiotics is 55 to 64 °C (by using differential scanning calorimeter) and the best temperature to obtain the highest percent of nonreducing sugar is 58 °C. Moreover, percentage of nonreducing sugar increases with increasing mixing speed and the best of mixing speed is 100 rpm (Thitipong Rugwong and others 2010).

Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Various jackfruit plant parts, including the bark, wood, leaves, fruit, and seeds, may exhibit a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Caution is advised in patients taking antibiotics due to possible additive effects. Jackfruit seeds may increase the risk of bleeding when taking with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (“blood thinners”) such as warfarin (Coumadin) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) or naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve).

Jackfruit leaves may improve glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetes patients. It also inhibits the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there are conflicting data regarding jackfruit's antifungal activity.

Human Disorders and Health

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Any condition that interferes with the normal functioning of the body is called a disease. In other words, disease may be defined as a disorder in the physical, physiological, psychological or social state of a person caused due to nutritional deficiency, physiological disorder, genetic disorder, pathogen, or any other reason. Jackfruit has antioxidant properties that plays vital role to cure the following human disorder and improving health.

Cardiovascular health

One of the major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is dyslipidemia. It is mainly characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and/or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (Esmaillzadeh and Azadbakht 2008).

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (Heinecke 2006). Oxidation of LDL lipids is thought to render the lipoprotein atherogenic, because oxidized LDL is more readily taken up by macrophages via scavenger receptors (Heinecke 1998).

Epidemiological studies have shown that high concentrations of serum total cholesterol and LDL-C are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (Russo and others 2008) and could produce atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, a major degenerative disease of arteries involves a series of inflammatory and oxidative modifications within the arterial wall (Fan and Watanabe 2003). Oxidative excess in the vasculature reduces levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide, causes tissue injury, promotes protein oxidation and DNA damage, and induces proinflammatory responses (Xu and Touyz 2006). Oxidative stress induces inflammation by acting on the pathways that generate inflammatory mediators like adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Valko and others 2007).

The functional components of jackfruit to reduce the various diseases such as lowering blood pressure, preventing heart disease and strokes, preventing bone loss and improving muscle and, nerve function, reducing homocysteine levels in the blood. The potassium in the jackfruit is found to help in lowering blood pressure and reversing the effects of sodium that causes a rise in blood pressure that affects the heart and blood vessels. This helps in preventing heart disease and strokes. Potassium also helps in preventing bone loss and improves muscle and nerve function. Another heart-friendly property found in the jackfruit is due to vitamin B6 that helps reduce homocysteine levels in the blood thus lowering the risk of heart disease (Fernando and others 1991).

Improving skin health

Damage to the skin occurs as a consequence of the natural aging process and damage is exacerbated in chronically sun-exposed skin (photoaging) (Lavker 1995). Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been identified as a cause of serious adverse effects to human skin, including oxidative stress, premature skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, and skin cancer (Widmer and others 2006).

As stated before, benefit of eating jackfruit is that it is a good source of vitamin C. The human body does not make vitamin C naturally so we must eat food that contains vitamin C to reap its health benefits.

Jackfruit is gluten-free and casein-free, thus offer systemic anti-inflammatory benefits to skin. Jackfruit also contains antioxidants and has vitamin C, flavonoids, potassium, magnesium and fiber. Vitamin C is vital to the production of collagen, a protein that provides skin with structure and gives it its firmness and strength (Babitha and others 2004).

Improving stomach ulcer

Stomach ulcer is one type of peptic ulcer. A stomach ulcer is sometimes called a gastric ulcer. (The most common type of peptic ulcer is a duodenal ulcer.). A stomach ulcer is usually caused by an infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. A 4 to 8 wk course of acid-suppressing medication will allow the ulcer to heal. In addition, a 1-wk course of 2 antibiotics plus an acid-suppressing drug will usually clear the Helicobacter pylori infection. This usually prevents the ulcer recurring again. (Clinical Knowledge Summaries 2008). Gastric ulcer can result from persistent erosions and damage of the stomach wall that might even become perforated and develop into peritonitis and massive hemorrhage as a result of inhibition in the synthesis of mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandins (Wallace 2008). Various factors can contribute to the formation of gastric ulcer, especially the infection of stomach by Helicobacter pylori (Phillipson and others 2002), also frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (Bighetti and others 2005), and consumption of alcohol (Bandyopadhyay and others 2002). The success of commercially available antiulcer drugs in the treatment of gastric ulcer is usually overshadowed by various side effects. For examples, H2- receptor antagonists (such as cimetidine) may cause gynecomasia in men and galactorrhea in women (Feldman and Burton 1990), while proton-pump inhibitors (such as omeprazole and lansoprazol) can cause nausea, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea (Franko and Richter 1998; Reilly 1999). Due to those side effects there is a need to find new antiulcerogenic compound(s) with potentially less or no side effects and medicinal plants have always been the main sources of new drug candidates for the treatment of gastric ulcer (Borrelli and Izzo 2000; Rates 2001).

One of the plants that have been traditionally used in Indian and Malay folklore medicine to treat gastric ulcer is A. heterophyllus L.

Improving digestion

The presence of high fiber content (3.6 g/100 g) in the jackfruit prevents constipation and produces smooth bowel movements. It also offers protection to the colon mucous membrane by removing carcinogenic chemicals from the large intestine (colon) (Siddappa 1957).

Strengthening the bone

Jackfruit is rich in magnesium (27 mg/100 g in young fruit and 54 mg/100 g in seed) (Gunasena and others 1996). It is a nutrient important in the absorption of calcium and works with calcium to help strengthen the bone and prevents bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis (Singh and others 1991).

Preventing anemia

Jackfruit also contains iron (0.5 mg/100 g), which helps to prevent anemia and also helps in proper blood circulation (Singh and others 1991).

Maintaining a healthy thyroid gland

Copper (10.45 mg/kg) plays an important role in thyroid gland metabolism, especially in hormone production and absorption and jackfruit is loaded with this important microminerals (Gunasena and others 1996).

Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fiber (3.19%) (Hettiarachchi and others 2011). Jackfruit seed contains lignans, isoflavones, saponins, all phytonutrients and their health benefits are wide-ranging from anticancer to antihypertensive, antiaging, antioxidant, antiulcer, and so on (Omale and Friday 2010).

Boiled Jackfruit seeds are very tasty and nutritious snacks, jackfruit seeds, which taste like chestnuts, appeal to all taste. They may be boiled or roasted and eaten or boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts.

Bobbio and others (1978) reported protein, crude lipid, and carbohydrate contents of jackfruit seeds as 31.9%, 1.3%, and 66.2%, respectively. The protein content reported was very high probably, because the seeds were reported to have been collected from fruits of various trees and no variety was reported. Kumar and others (1988) also reported on the composition of seeds from 2 varieties of jackfruit. Protein, crude lipid, and carbohydrate content were 17.8% to 18.3%, 2.1% to 2.5%, and 76.1%, respectively. There have been few studies on jackfruit seeds. Bobbio and others (1978) reported some physicochemical properties, such as pasting characteristics of jackfruit seed starch. Kumar and others (1988) studied the proximate compositions of 2 varieties of jackfruit seeds and reported considerable biochemical differences between them. The starch content of the seed increased with maturity and different locations gave different seed contents (Rahman and others 1999).

Seeds makeup around 10% to 15% of the total fruit weight and have high carbohydrate and protein contents (Bobbio and others 1978; Kumar and others 1988). Seeds are normally discarded or steamed and eaten as a snack or used in some local dishes. As fresh seeds cannot be kept for a long time, seed flour can be an alternative product, to be used in other food products. There have been few studies on jackfruit seeds. Some functional properties of jackfruit seed flour and its protein digestibility was reported by Singh and others (1991). Amylose content of jackfruit seed starch was 32% (Tulyathan and others 2002). Jackfruit seed extract was found to inhibit the proteolytic activities of different animal pancreatic preparations effectively (Bhat and Pattabiraman 1986). The fresh seed contains crude proteins (606 g), fat (0.4 g), carbohydratres (38.4 g), fiber (1.5 g), ash (1.25 to 1.50 g), and moisture (51.6 to 57.77 g) (Morton 1987). Information on food value per 100 g of edible portion of dried seed is scarce. The presence of antinutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitors has been reported, resulting in digestive ailment when eaten raw (Morton 1987).

Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Jackfruit seed flour has great potential in the food industry, especially as thickener and binding agent in various food systems (Ocloo and others 2010). Some functional properties of jackfruit seed flour and its protein digestibility was reported by Singh and others (1991). The composition of seed flour is shown in Table 4, the minerals composition of jackfruit seed flour is shown in Table 5. The composition of flour depends on the nature of the seeds. When flour was prepared from seeds without removing the thin brown spermoderm, the crude fiber content was 2.36%, close to that reported by Singh and others (1991). Tulyathan and others (2002) reported on the good ability of the flour to bind water and lipid. The flour had good capacities for water absorption (25%) and oil absorption (17%) (Table 6) and the Brabender amylogram (6% concentration) of seed starch showed that its pasting temperature was 81 °C; and its viscosity was moderate, remained constant during a heating cycle, and retrograded slightly on cooling. The starch showed an A-type X-ray powder diffraction pattern (Tulyathan and others 2002).

Table 4–.  Physicochemical properties of jackfruit seed flour.
No. Indices Values (% dry matter)
1Moisture6.09 ± 0.01
2Crude fat1.27 ± 0.01
3Ash2.70 ± 0.02
4Protein13.50 ± 0.06
5Fibre3.19 ± 0.01
6Carbohydrate79.34 ± 0.06
7Energy(kcal/100 g)382.79 ± 1.20
8pH5.78 ± 0.01
9Titratable acidity (as lactic acid)1.12 ± 0.03
10Bulk density (g/cm)0.80 ± 0.02
Table 5–.  Minerals composition of jackfruit seed flour.
No. Minerals Values (mg/kg)
1Calcium3087 ± 166
2Magnesium3380 ± 388
3Iron130.74 ± 12.37
4Zinc< 0.01
5Potassium14781 ± 256
6Manganese1.12 ± 0.11
7Copper10.45 ± 0.89
8Sodium60.66 ± 2.01
Table 6–.  Functional properties of jackfruit seed flour.
No. Indices Values
1Water absorption capacity (%)25.00 ± 1.67
2Fat absorption capacity (%)17.00 ± 1.37
3Foaming capacity (%)25.34 ± 0.02
4Foam stability (%)33.00 ± 0.01
5Swelling power (g/g)4.77

Antiviral Properties

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Jackfriut lectin (JFL) from A. heterophyllus has been found to have inhibitory activity in vitro with a cytopathic effect toward herpes simplex virus type HSV-2. Varicellazoster virus (VZS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) (Wetprasit and others 2000). Several plant lectins have been shown to inhibit infectivity of viruses. For example, jackfruit has been found to inhibit in vitro infection of HIV-1 without preventing the virus from binding to the host cell (Favero and others 1993). The antiviral activity of JFL in response to HSV-2 and CMV, either before or after viral infection of cell monolayers, was observed at different doses. This result differed markedly from the lack of effect reported for collectin, mannan-binding protein, and bovine conglutinin on HSV-2. This result suggest that JFL may act either on the surface of the host cell or directly on the viral envelope, thereby inhibiting viral infectivity (Favero and others 1993).

Acetylcholine in Jackfruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

In higher animals acetylcholine (ACh) is associated with the transmission of nerve impulses. It has also been found in the free-living protozoon Paramecium (Bayer and Wense 1936), in the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum (Stephenson and Rowatt 1947), in the parasite Trypanosoma rhodesiense (Bulbring and others 1949), and in the gill plates of the mussel Mytilus edulis (Bulbring and others 1953). In these lower organisms there is no transmission of nerve impulses, but, since ACh is associated with such motor activity as ciliary movement, Bulbring and others (1953) have suggested that ACh might act in these organisms as a local hormone. In plants ACh has so far been found only in ergot, Claviceps purpurea (Ewins 1914), and in the nettles Urtica urens and Urtica diocia (Emmelin and Feldberg 1947). The present communication reports another rich plant source of ACh-the seed and leaf of the Malayan jackfruit, Artocarpus integra.

Pharmacological tests, comparative assays, and chemical precipitation have established that the seed and the leaves of the jackfruit tree, Artocarpus integra, contain considerable amounts of acetylcholine (ACh). The average values of ACh were 564 μg/g of seed, 300 μg/g of midribs of leaves, and 60 μg/g of whole leaves (Robert Chun Yu 1955).

Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Uses of jackfruit in traditional medicine are shown in Table 7 and below.

Table 7–.  Putative use of jackfruit in local medicine.
No. Plant part Use
  1. Source: Haq (2006).

1RootsAn extract of roots is used in treating skin diseases, asthma and diarrhea.
2LeavesAn extract from leaves and latex cures asthma, prevents ringworm infestation and heals cracking of feet. Leaf extract is given to diabetics as a control measure. Heated leaves are reported to cure wounds, abscesses and ear problems and to relieve pain. An infusion of mature leaves and bark is used to treat gallstones. A tea made with dried and powdered leaves is taken to relieve asthma. The ash of jackfruit leaves burned with maize and coconut shells is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers.
3FlowersCrushed inflorescences are used to stop bleeding in open wounds.
4FruitsRipe fruits are laxative.
5PulpThe jackfruit pulp and seeds are nutritious tonic and useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system.
6SeedThe seed starch is given to relieve biliousness. Roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac. Increased consumption of ripe jackfruit kernels alleviates vitamin A deficiency. Extract from fresh seeds cures diarrhea and dysentery.Extract from seeds (or bark) helps digestion.
7BarkAn extract from bark and rags (nonedible portion of ripe fruits) or roots helps cure dysentery. The bark is made into poultices. Ash produced by burning bark can cure abscesses and ear problems.
8LatexMixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebites and glandular swellings.
9WoodThe wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to aid abortion.

Root

  • • 
    The root of the jackfruit tree forms the remedy for skin diseases, fever, and diarrhea.
  • • 
    The jackfruit root extract is said to help heal fever and diarrhea.
  • • 
    The jackfruit root has been discovered to be good for those being affected by asthma.

Leaves

  • • 
    The leaves of the jackfruit tree are useful for curing fever, boils, and skin diseases. When heated, they prove useful in curing wounds.
  • • 
    To heal ulcers, the ash of jackfruit leaves is used when burnt with corn and coconut shells and used either alone or mixed with coconut oil.

Latex

  • • 
    The latex of the fruit is helpful in treating dysopia, ophthalmic problems, and pharyngitis.
  • • 
    The latex can also be mixed with vinegar to heal abscesses, snakebites, and glandular swellings.

Fruit

  • • 
    Fruit is useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on a person.
  • • 
    Jackfruit is abundant with potassium and it is said to be useful in decreasing blood pressure.
  • • 
    Jackfruit has phytonutrients with health benefits covering many claims from anticancer to antihypertensive properties.
  • • 
    Jackfruit turns out to be an excellent way to obtain vitamin C that is recognized for its substantial antioxidant properties.
  • • 
    Jackfruit is recognized to have antiulcer qualities and is said to be good for individuals experiencing indigestion.
  • • 
    With antiaging benefits, the jackfruit may help reduce the damage of cells to make skin appear supple and younger.
  • • 
    Jackfruit is an excellent source of proteins, carbohydrates, and also vitamins.
  • • 
    The fruit may help reduce and cure tension as well as nervousness.
  • • 
    As it has very few calories plus a very small quantity of fat, jackfruit is useful for individuals on a low-calorie diet.

Seed

  • • 
    The seeds starch is believed to be useful in relieving biliousness, while the roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac.
  • • 
    The seeds and pulp of jackfruit are considered as a cooling as well as a nutritious tonic.

Value-Added Products from Jackfruit

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

Many jackfruit products have been developed, notably jackfruit juice, candy, and a fruit bar from ripe jackfruit. Unripe jackfruit pulp can be made into flakes, which can be preserved for a long time. Jackfruit seed is used in some biscuit factories of Tamil Nadu and is of high demand there; various bakery products using jack seed flour are made into cookies and murukku (The Hindu 2010).

The various products developed from jackfruit in Karnataka are candy, finger chips, fruit bars, fruit leather, halvah, papad, ready-to-serve beverages, toffee, and milk-based srikhand, ice cream, and kulfi. Half-ripened bulbs can be processed into bulb powder and this is then utilized for the preparation of traditional snacks such as pakoda, biscuits, and muffins (The Hindu 2008).

The State Board of Horticulture Mission and Center for Innovation in Science and Social Action (CISSA), Kerala, October 2011, organized a “Mobile Jack Bazaar” in that as many as 20 jackfruit products were displayed at the mobile market set up in an altered car which will move through major points in a city and sell “solar dried jackfruit,”“chakkakkuru peda,”“jackfruit wine, chakka varatti,” jackfruit jam, fresh jackfruit arils, jackfruit chips, and more. Haridoss (2009) prepared recipes for jackfruit papad, chips, sambar, and kadabu that are useful Malenadu recipes during the jackfruit season. Breakfast items like tellevu (a kind of dosa), roti, vada, bonda, and dosa and dinner items like suttevu, priaju, sole kochchalu, undalikalu, bajji, chakke paladya, sole paladya, and palya and some are made out of jackfruit peel, namely hadigadde playa and sole hasi. Value-added products from jackfruit are shown in Figure 3.

image

Figure 3–. Different value-added products from jackfruit.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Jackfruit jam

The fruit pulp can be used to make jam. The addition of a synthetic flavoring agent such as ethyl or n-butyl ester of 4-hydroxybutyric acid at 100 and 120 ppm, respectively, will greatly improve the taste of the jackfruit products (Technical Manual for Small-Scale Fruit Processors 2004).

Many other fruit jams in supermarkets are mixed with a generous amount of sugar, which increases the risk for diabetes. On the contrary, jackfruit jam is full of natural sugars and low in calories making it an ideal food source to reduce body weight.

Jackfruit wine

The ripe jackfruit contains a good amount of fermentable sugar, which may be exploited for the commercial production of vinegar and wine. Amit and Ambarish (2010) reported that the maximum alcohol content in jackwine was 10% (v/v), with a sugar utilization of 14% of total sugar solids. These early results show promise for the use of this fruit for commercial wine production. A certain maturity level and ripeness of jackfruit (29 to 30 °Brix) are essential for the production of jackfruit wine.

The jackfruit wine may protect against antioxidant and DNA damage and could become a valuable source of antioxidant rich neutraceuticals. Additionally, the wine could be a commercially valuable by-product for the jackfruit growers (Umesh and others 2011).

Fermented beverages

Products like fermented beverages, especially fruit wine and vinegar from ripe jackfruit using food processing and biotechnological techniques, will not only reduce losses of fruit material but also make the fruit products available during the off season and generate income and also employment opportunities in rural areas.

Dahiya and Prabhu (1977) studied alcoholic beverages made by fermentation of jackfruit pulp. The tribal people of Nagaland, Tripura, and other eastern hilly areas of India consume jackfruit wine. The wine contains 7% to 8% (v/v) alcohol.

Junkai and Wang (2008) reported that when using jackfruit as the main material, jackfruit wine was produced by temperature-controlled fermentation. With comparative tests, the optimal processing parameters were determined. The addition amount of pectinase was 100 mg/L, SO2 content was 50 to 100 mg/L, fermentation temperature was 24 oC, sugar content was adjusted to 21% and the active dry yeast was 5%.

Fermented jackfruit preserves vitamin C, widely used supplements as it is best known as the nutrient which helps to prevent colds and infections. One cup of fermented jackfruit can supply the body a very good amount of this potent antioxidant.

Dehydrated jackfruit

Diamante (2009) reported that dehydrated jackfruit is a nutritious snack item when made from ripe jackfruit pulp. It is golden-yellow to orange and has a chewy texture with a sweet and sour taste.

Unlike other dehydrated products it is free from sulfite preservatives thus it will not trigger allergic reaction in sensitive consumer.

Jackfruit chips

Jagadeesh and others (2006) reported on the preparation of jackfruit chips. The starch content and dry matter content of the raw material determines the yield of the processed product. Flake thickness, bulb length, total sugar solids, and reducing sugars were found to be important for improving the yield and quality of jackfruit chips.

Molla and others (2008) stated that preparation of jackfruit chips is very simple and can easily be done. The bulbs are cut into 4 cm × 2 cm slices. The cut slices are blanched in water for 10 min. Then the slices are weighed and immersed in 0.1% KMS for 15 min using 2 kg of solution per kg of bulb material. After sieving the water, the slices are dried using a mechanical dryer to assure less oil absorption in the subsequent frying. The slices are fried in oil and stirred with a narrow wooden rod maintaining the temperature at 70 oC for 1 h and 60 oC for another 6 h. When the slices are of light yellow color the chips are taken from saucepan. These prepared chips are mixed with some salt and spices in a bowl. Then the processed chips can be packed in various packaging materials or containers. Considering moisture content (%), weight gain (%), quality aspects, and sensory attributes like crispiness, color, flavor, and overall acceptability, metal foil pouches were found most suitable for packaging jackfruit chips. The prepared chips can be stored at ambient conditions in “metalex” foil for 2 mo without loss of organoleptic quality.

The nutrients in jackfruit will still remain and also it retains its own original color, flavor, and texture after frying. The jackfruit chips are rich in vitamin E, y-oryzanol (an antioxidant that may help prevent heart attacks), and phytosterols (compounds believed to help lower the cholesterol adsorption in the body) which are helpful in providing health benefits.

Jackfruit leather

Jackfruit leather is dried sheets of fruit pulp. It has a soft, rubbery texture, and a sweet taste. It can also be made from a mixture of fruits, and sugar, chopped nuts, or spices can be added to vary the flavor. It can be eaten as a snack food instead of a boiled sweet. It can also be used as an ingredient in the manufacture of cookies, cakes, and ice cream (International Centre for Underutilized Crops, UK, 2004).

Several bakery products such as biscuits, muffins masala vada, flour, and chapathi also developed from the jackfruit seed. The rind is also a very good source of pectin, which was extracted from it. Different value-added products from jackfruit are shown in Figure 4.

image

Figure 4–. Value-added products from jackfruit: (A) dehydrated jackfruit; (B) jackfruit cake; (C) jackfruit chips; (D) jackfruit leather (Phanaspoli).

Download figure to PowerPoint

Conclusion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References

The consumption of jackfruit has grown in recent years due to its reported health benefits. Jackfruit and its pulp and seeds are rich sources of several high-value compounds with potential beneficial physiological activities. The rich bioactive profile of jackfruit makes it a highly nutritious and desirable fruit crop. Research has offered ample evidence that routine dietary supplementation with jackfruit may protect against and even improve several disease conditions, including stomach ulcer and cardiovascular disease; it may even help to prevent and arrest the development of certain cancers, in addition to protecting the health of the mouth and skin. Side effects are very rare. Using standardized jackfruit products offer consumers a way of reaping the broad spectrum of health benefits of this fruit.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Phytochemistry
  5. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit
  6. Phytonutrients (Lignans, Isoflavones, and Saponins)
  7. Phenolic Compounds
  8. Antioxidants
  9. Carotenoid Composition
  10. Jackfruit as a Functional Fruit
  11. Functional Properties
  12. Extraction of Functional Components from Jackfruit
  13. Manufacture of Neutraceuticals from Jackfruit
  14. Human Disorders and Health
  15. Chemical Composition of Jackfruit Seed
  16. Chemical Properties of Jackfruit Seed Flour
  17. Other Properties
  18. Antiviral Properties
  19. Acetylcholine in Jackfruit
  20. Other Uses and Benefits of Different Parts of Jackfruit
  21. Value-Added Products from Jackfruit
  22. Conclusion
  23. References
  • Ahmed K, Malek M, Jahan K, Salamatullah K. 1986. Nutritive value of food stuff. 3rd ed. Institute of Nutrition and Food Science. Bangladesh : University of Dhaka. p 167.
  • Alvarez JA, Sayas-Barberia E, Ferniandez-Lopez J. 2003. Aspectos generales de los alimentos funcionales. In: Perez-Alvarez JA, Sayas-Barber E, Fernandez-Lopez J, editors. Alimentos funcionales dieta Mediterranea. Elche : Univ. Miguel Herniandez. p 318.
  • Alzamora SM, Salvatori D, Tapia SM, Lopez-Malo A, Welti-Chanes J, Fito P. 2005. Novel functional foods from vegetable matrices impregnated with biologically active compounds. J Food Eng 67:20514.
  • Amit KT, Ambarish V. 2010. Production of jackwine - a wine from ripe jackfruit. Pharmbit XXII(2):154.
  • Arkroyd WR, Gopalan C, Balasubramanuyam SC. 1966. The nutritive value of Indian food and the planning of satisfaction diet. Sept. Rep. Ser. 42 Indian Council of Medical Research. New Delhi .
  • Bayer G, Wense T. 1936. Pflugers archive european. J Phys 237:417.
  • Babitha S, Sandhya C, Pandey A. 2004. Natural food colorants, Appl Bot Abstr 23:25866.
  • Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. 2006. Phenolic compounds in plants agri-industrial by-products: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem 99:191203.
  • Bandyopadhyay D, Bandyopadhyay A, Das PK, Reiter RJ. 2002. Melatonin protects against gastric ulceration and increases the efficacy of ranitidine and omeprazole in reducing gastric damage. J Pineal Res 33(1):17.
  • Barua AG, Boruah BR. 2004. Minerals and functional groups present in the jackfruit seed: a spectroscopic investigation. J Food Sci Nutr 55:47983.
  • Bhat AV, Pattabiraman TN. 1986. Protease inhibitors from jackfruit seed (Artocarpus integrifolia). J Biosci 14(4):35165.
  • Bighetti AE, Antonio MA, Kohn LK, Rehder VLG, Foglio MA, Possenti A, Vilela L, Carvalho JE. 2005. Antiulcerogenic activity of a crude. hydroalcoholic extract and coumarin isolated from Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. Phytomedicine 12:727.
  • Bobbio FO, El-Dash AA, Bobbio PA, Rodrigues LR. 1978. Isolation and characterization of the physicochemical properties of the starch of jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterorphyllus). Cereal Chem 55:50511.
  • Borrelli F, Izzo AA. 2000. The plant kingdom as a source of anti-ulcer remedies. Phytother Res 14(8):58191.
  • Bulbring EE, Lourie EM, Pardoe UU, 1949. The presence of acetylcholine in Trypanosoma rhodesiense and its absence from Plasmodium gallinaceum. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 4(3):29094.
  • Bulbring E, Burn JH, Shelley HJ. 1953. Some observations on cardiac automatism in certain animals. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 141(905):44566.
  • Burkill HM. 1997. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Vol. 4, 2nd Ed. Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew , U.K. p 1601.
  • Caballero-Ortega H, Pereda-Miranda R, Abdullaev FI. 2007. HPLC quantification of major active components from 11 different saffron (Crocus sativus L.) sources. Food Chem 100:112631.
  • Cadenas E, Packer L. 1996. Hand book of antioxidants. Plenum Publishers: New York .
  • Chai-Ming L, Chun-Nan L. 1993. Two 2′, 4′, 6′-trioxygenated flavanones from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Natural Products Research Centre 33(4):90911.
  • Chandrika UG, Jansz ER, Warnasuriya ND. 2004. Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of their bioconversion in rats. J Sci Food Agric 85(2):18690.
  • Chandrika UG, Jansz ER, Warnasuriya ND. 2005. Analysis of carotenoids in ripe jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) kernel and study of their bioconversion in rats. J Sci Food Agric 85(2):18690.
  • Chawdhary FA, Raman MA. 1997. Distribution of free sugars and fatty acids in Jackfruit. Food Chem 60(1):258.
  • Chun-Nan L, Chai-Ming L. 1993. Heterophylol, a phenolic compound with novel skeleton from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Tetrahedron Lett 34(17):824950.
  • Chun-Nan L, Chai-Ming L, Pao-Lin H. 1995. Flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Phytochemistry 39(6):144751.
  • Dahiya DS, Prabhu KA. 1977. Indian jackfruit wine. Symposium on indigenous fermented foods. Bangkok , Thailand .
  • Dayal R, Seshadri TR. 1974. Colourless compounds of the roots of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Isolation of new compound artoflavone. Indian J Chem 12:8956.
  • De Faria AF, De Rosso VV, Mercadante AZ. 2009. Carotenoid composition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) determined by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:10815.
  • De Rosso VV, Mercadante AZ. 2007. Identification and quantification of carotenoids, by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, from Amazonian fruits. J Agric Food Chem 55:506272.
  • Dembinska-Kice A, Mykkanen O, Kice-Wilk B, Mykkanene H. 2008. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of fifteen tropical fruits. Brit J Nut 99:10917.
  • Devasagayam TPA, Tilak JC, Boloor KK, Ketaki S, Saroj S, Ghaskadbi L, Lele R D. 2004. Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. JAPI 52:2917.
  • Devasagayam TPA, Tilak JC, Singhal R. 2001. Functional foods in India; history and scope in angiogenesis. In: Losso JN, Shahidi F, Bagchi D, editors: Functional and medicinal foods. Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York. In press.
  • Diamante LM. 2009. Vacuum-fried jackfruit: jackfruit in its hippest form. Information Bulletin, Dept. of food science and technology, Leyte State University 259/2009. Available from: http://www.dti.gov.ph/uploads/DownloadableFiles/jackfruit_processed_food.pdf.
  • Emmelin N, Feldberg W. 1947. Choline acetyltransferase in the nettle Urtica dioica L. Ibid J 106(4):4405.
  • Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L. 2008. Food intake patterns may explain the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women. J Nutr 138(8):146975.
  • European Commission. 1999. European Commission concerted action on functional food science in Europe: scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe. Consensus Document. Br J Nutr 81(1):127.
  • Ewins AJ. 1914. Acetylcholine, a new active principle of ergot. Biochem J 8(1):449.
  • Fan J, Watanabe T. 2003. Inflammatory reactions in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb 10:6371.
  • Favero J, Corbeau P, Nicolas M, Benkirani M, Trave G, Dixon JF, Aucouturier P, Rasheed S, Parker JW, Liautard JP. 1993. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infection by the lectin jacalin and by a derived peptide showing a sequence similarity with gp120. Eur J Immunol 23:17985.
  • Feldman M, Burton ME. 1990. Histamine 2-receptor antagonists standard therapy for acid-peptic diseases. N Engl J Med 323:167280.
  • Fernando MR, Wickramasinghe N, Thabrew MI. 1991. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients. J Ethnopharmacol 1(3):27782.
  • Franko TG, Richter JE. 1998. Proton-pump inhibitors for gastric acid related disease. Cleve Clin J Med 65(1):2734.
  • Galaverna G, Di Silvestro G, Cassano A, Sforza S, Doceana A, Drioli E, Marchelli R. 2008. A new integrated membrane process for the production of concentrated blood orange juice: effect on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Food Chem 106:102130.
  • Garciıa-Segovia P, Andres-Bello A, Martinez-Monzo J. 2007. Effect of cooking method on mechanical properties, color and structure of beef muscle (m. pectoralis). J Food Eng 80:81321.
  • Giovannucci E. 1999. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopenc, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Nat Cancer Inst 91:31731.
  • Gunasena HPM, Ariyadasa KP, Wikramasinghe A, Herath HMW, Wikramasinghe P, Rajakaruna SB. 1996. Manual of Jack Cultivation in Sri Lanka. Forest Information Service, Forest Department: 48.
  • Halliwell B. 1997. Antioxidants and human diseases: a general introduction. Nutr Rev 55:4452.
  • Haq N. 2006. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus. Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops., Southampton , UK : University of Southampton.
  • Haridoss P. 2009. CARD-Krishi Vigyan Kendra. Mysor . Available from: http://panasamwonders.blogspot.in/. Accessed Sep 26, 2012.
  • Heinecke JW. 1998. Oxidants and antioxidants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: implications for the oxidized low-density lipoprotein hypothesis. Atherosclerosis 141:115.
  • Heinecke JW. 2006. Chemical knockout of C-reactive protein in cardiovascular disease. J Nat Chem Biol 2:3001.
  • Hettiarachchi UPK, Ekanayake S, Welihinda J. 2011. Nutritional assessment of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal. Ceylon Med J 56(2):548.
  • Hossain MK, Azizur Rahman, Matior Rahman AKM, Jabbar Mian A. 1990. Some low-molecular-weight compounds isolated and characterized from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). J Bang Acad Sci 14:4956.
  • Institute of Food Technologists. 2009. Functional foods: opportunities and challenges. Institute of Food Technologists. Available from: http://members.ift.org/IFT/Research/IFTExpertReports/functionalfoods_report.htm. Accessed Mar 24, 2005.
  • Institute of Medicine. 2000. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington , DC : National Academy Press.
  • International Food Information Council. 2009. Functional foods: attitudinal research. International Food Information Council. Available from: http://www.ific.org/research/funcfoodsres02.cfm. Accessed Oct 2009.
  • Jagadeesh SL, Reddy BS, Hegde LN, Swamy GSK. Raghavan GSV. 2006. Value addition in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.). Paper number 066135.
  • Jha PK, Choudhary RS, Choudhary SK. 1997. Studies of medicinal plants of Palamau (Bihar)-2nd Part. Biojournal 9:2138.
  • Junkai LI, Wang  . 2008. Study on fermentation technology of jackfruit wine. J China Brewing 12:378.
  • Kagan VE, Kisin ER, Kawai K. 2002. Towards mechanism-based antioxidant interventions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 959:18898.
  • Ko FN, Cheng ZJ, Lin CN, Teng CM. 1998. Scavenger and antioxidant properties of prenylflavones isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Free Radical Biol Med 25(2):1608.
  • Kopsell DA, Kopsell DE. 2006. Accumulation amid bioavailability of dietary carotenoids in vegetable crops. Trends Plant Sci 11:499507.
  • Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, Bone RA. 2003. Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr 23:171201.
  • Kumar S, Singh AB, Abidi AB, Upadhyay RG, Singh A. 1988. Proximate composition of jackfruit seeds. J Food Sci Technol 25:3089.
  • Lansky EP, Newman RA. 2007. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 109:177206.
  • Lavker RM. 1995. Cutaneous aging: chronologic versus photoaging. In: Gilchrest BA, editor. Photodamage. Cambridge , Mass . Blackwell Science. p 12335.
  • Liaaen-Jensen S. 1995. Combined approach: identification and structure elucidation of carotenoids. In: Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H, editors. Carotenoids, Vol. 1B: Spectroscopy. Birkhauser , Basel : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. p 34354.
  • Mayne ST. 1996. Beta-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans. J Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 10:7690701.
  • Marine FR, Martinez M, Uribesalgo T, Castillo S, Furtos MJ. 2001. Changes in nutraceutical composition of lemon juice according to different industrial extraction systems. Food Chem 78:31924.
  • McDougall GJ, Shpiro F, Dibosn P, Smith P, Black A, Stewart D. 2005. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. J Agri Food Chem 53(7):27606.
  • Molla MM, Nasrin AA, Islam MN, Bhuyan MAJ. 2008. Preparation and packaging of jackfruit chips. Intl J Sustainable Crop Prod 3(6):417.
  • Morton J. 1987. Jackfruit.: Fruits of warm climates. by Morton Julia F., Miami FL. p. 5864. Available from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/jackfruit_ars.html.
  • Mukprasirt A, Sajjaanantakul K. 2004. Physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from jackfruit seed. Intl J Food Sci Technol 39(3): 2716.
  • Nakasone HY, Paull RE. 1998. Tropical fruits, New York : CAB International.
  • Narasimham P. 1990. Breadfruit and jackfruit. In: Nagy S, Shaw PE, Wardowski WF, editors, Fruits of tropical and subtropical origin Lake Alfred , FL : Florida Science Source. p 193259.
  • Nath MC, Chaturvedi K. 1989. Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit): an overview. J Physiol Chem 28:21979.
  • Niva M. 2007. All foods affect health: understandings of functional foods and healthy eating among health-oriented Finns. Appetite 48:38493.
  • Nualla-ong S, Chetpattananondh P, Yamsaengsung R. 2009. Extraction of prebiotics from jackfruit seeds. J Eng 36:21320.
  • Ocloo FCK, Bansa D, Boatin R, Adom T, Agbemavor WS. 2010. Physico-chemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour produced from jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds. Agric Biol J N Am 1(5):9038.
  • Odoemelam SA. 2005. Functional properties of raw and heat processed jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) flour. Pakistan J. Nutr 4(6):36670.
  • Omale J, Friday E. 2010. Phytochemical composition, bioactivity and wound healing potential of Euphorbia Heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract. Intl J Pharm Biomed Res 1(1):5463.
  • Palou A, Serra F, Pico C. 2003. General aspects on the assessment of functional foods in the European Union. Eur J Clin Nutr 57:127.
  • Pavanasasivam GM, Sultanbawa S. 1973. Cycloartenyl acetate, cycloartenol and cycloartenone in the bark of Artocarpus species. Phytochemistry 12(11):27256.
  • Pereira-da-Silva GAN, Moreno F, Marques C, Jamur A, Panunto-Castelo MC. 2006. Neutrophil activation induced by the lectin KM+ involves binding to CXCR2. Biochim Biophys Acta 1(1):8694.
  • Perkin G, Cope F. 1995. The constituents of Artocarpus integrifolia. J Chem Soc 67:93744.
  • Pfander H, Riesen R, Niggli U. 1994. HPLC and SFC of carotenoids—scope and limitations. Pure Appl Chem 66:94754.
  • Pfister S, Meyer P, Steck A, Pfander H. 1996. Isolation and structure elucidation of carotenoid-glycosyl esters in gardenia fruits (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) and saffron (Crocus sativus Linne). J Agric Food Chem 44:26125.
  • Phillipson M, Atuma C, Henriksnas J, Holm A. 2002. The importance of mucus layers and bicarbonate transport in preservation of gastric juxtamucosal pH. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282:G2119.
  • Rahman MA, Nahar N, Mian AJ, Moshiuzzaman M. 1999. Variation of carbohydrate compostion of two forms of fruit from jack tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L) with maturity and climatic condition. Food Chem 65:917.
  • Rama Rao AV, Varadan M, Venkataraman K. 1973. Colouring matter of the A. heterophyllus. Indian J Chem 11:2989.
  • Rates SM. 2001. Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon 39:60313.
  • Reilly JP. 1999. Safety profile of the proton-pump inhibitors. Am J Health Syst Pharm 56(23):117.
  • Ribeiro SMR, de Queiroz JH, de Queiroz MELR, Campos FM, Santana HMP. 2007. Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp. World J Agric Sci 6(6):7359.
  • Roberfroid MB. 2002. Global view on functional foods: European perspectives. Br J Nut 88:1338.
  • Robert Chun Yu L. 1955. Presence of acetylcholine in the Malayan jackfruit, Artocarpus integra. Brit J Pharmacol 10(2):24753.
  • Roy SK, Joshi GD. 1995. Minor fruits-tropical. In: Salunkhe DK, editor. Handbook of fruit science and technology. New York , USA : Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 5703.
  • Russo F, Chimienti G, Riezzo G, Pepe G, Petrosillo G, Chiloiro M, Marconi E. 2008. Inulin-enrioched pasta affects lipid profile and Lp(a) concentrations in Italian young healthy male volunteers. Eur J Nutr 47(8):4539.
  • Samaddar HM. 1985, Jackfruit. In: Bose TK, Mishra SK, editors. Fruits of India: tropical and subtropical. Culcutta , India : Naya Prokash. p 63849.
  • Schiedt K, Liaaen-Jensen S. 1995. Isolation and analysis. In: Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H, editors. Carotenoids, Vol 1A: Isolation and analysis. Basel : Birkhäuser . p 81108.
  • Selvaraj Y, Pal DK. 1989. Biochemical changes during ripening of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L). J Food Sci Technol 26:3047.
  • Setiawan B, Sulaeman A, Giraud DW, Driskell JA. 2001. Carotenoid content of selected Indonesian fruits. J Food Comp Anal 14:16976.
  • Siddappa GS. 1957. Development of products from jackfruit - canned jackfruit, frozen canned jackfruit and jackfruit jam. J Sci Ind Res 9(11):16699.
  • Sies H. 1996. Antioxidants in disease, mechanisms and therapy. New York : Academic Press.
  • Singh A, Kumar S, Singh IS. 1991. Functional properties of jackfruit seed flour. Lebensm – Wissu Technol 24:3734.
  • Soobrattee MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon-Ramma A, Aruma OI, Bahorun T. 2005. Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and action. Mutation Res 579:20013.
  • Soong YY, Philip Barlow J. 2004. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected fruit seeds. J Agric Food Sci Chem 88:4117.
  • Stahl W, Sies H. 2005. Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1740:1017.
  • Stephenson M, Rowatt E. 1947. The Production of Acetylcholine by a Strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. J Gen Microbiol 1(3):27998.
  • Suresh Kumar G, Appukttan PS, Basu DK. 1982. D-Galactose – specific lectin from jackfruit seed. J Biosci 4:25761.
  • Technical Manual for Small-Scale Fruit Processors. 2004. UK: International Centre for Underutilised Crops. Available from: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/inpho/documents/AE618e.pdf. Accessed 2004.
  • Tee ES, Lim CL. 1991. Carotenoid composition and content of Malaysian vegetables and fruits by the AOAC and HPLC methods. Food Chem 41:30939.
  • Theivasanthi T, Alagar M. 2011. An insight analysis of nano sized powder of jackfruit seed. Nano Biomed Eng 3(3):1638.
  • Thitipong R, Pakamas C, Kulchanat P. 2010. Separation of prebiotics compounds from extract of jackfruit, TIChE International Conference at Hatyai. Songkhla , Thailand , Paper Code: sp004.
  • Tulyathan V, Tananuwong K, Songjinda P, Jaiboon N. 2002. Some physicochemical properties of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) seed flour and starch. Science Asia 28:3741.
  • Umesh JB, Panaskar Shrimant N, Bapat VA. 2010. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:99104.
  • Umesh JB, Waghmare Shailesh R, Lokhande Vinayak H, Penna Suprasanna, Bapat Vishwas A. 2011. Preparation and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) wine and its protective role against radiation induced DNA damage. Ind Crops Prod 12(09):5128.
  • Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. 2007. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:4484.
  • Venkataraman K. 2001. Wood of phenolics in the chemotaxonomy of the Moraceae. Phytochemistry 11(5):157186.
  • Vinuda-Martos M, Ruiz-NAvajas Y, Fernandez-Lopez J, Perez-Alvarez JA. 2010. Spice as a functional foods: a review. Crit Rev. Food Sci Food Safety 9:24058.
  • Wallace JL. 2008. Prostaglandins nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and gastric mucosal protection: why doesn't the stomach digest itself. Physiol Rev 88:154765.
  • Widmer R, Ziaja I, Grune T. 2006. Protein oxidation and degradation during aging: role in skin aging and neurodegeneration. Free Radical Res 40(12):125968.
  • Wetprasit N, Threesangsri W, Klamklai N, Chulavantol M. 2000. Jackfruit lectin: properties of mitogenicity and the inhibition of herpes virus infection. Jpn J Infect Dis 53:15661.
  • Wongsa P, Zamaluddien A. 2005. Total phenolic content, antioxidant actvity and inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of fifteen tropical fruits. 37th Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand.
  • Xu S, Touyz RM. 2006. Reactive oxygen species and vascular remodeling in hypertension: still alive. Can J Cardiol 22(11):94751.