A. heterophyllus contains various chemical constituents as several flavone colorings, morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, and artocarpanone (Rama Rao and others 1973). The heartwood of jackfruit on analysis yields moisture (6.7%), glucosides (38.0%), lipids (0.7%), protein (1.7%), and cellulose (59.0 %) (Perkin and Cope 1895). The jackfruit also contains free sugar (sucrose), fatty acids, ellagic acid, and amino acids like arginine, cystine, histidine, leucine, lysine, metheonine, theonine, tryptophan, and others. (Pavanasasivam and Sultanbawa 1973). Bark from the main trunk contains betullic acid and two new flavone pigments including cycloheterophyllin (C30H30O7) (Chawdhary and Raman 1997). Heterophylol, a phenolic compound with a novel skeleton, was obtained from A.heterophyllus (Chun-Nan and Chai-Ming 1993). The leaves and stem have shown the presence of sapogenins, cycloartenone, cycloartenol, β-sitosterol (Nath and Chaturvedi 1989), and tannins, and they have shown estrogenic activity. The root contains β-sitosterol, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, and cycloartenone (Dayal and Seshadri 1974).
Jacalin, the major protein from A. heterophyllus seeds, is a tetrameric two-chain lectin combining a heavy chain of 133 amino acid residues with a light βchain of 20 to 21 amino acid residues. It is highly specific for the O-glycoside of the disaccharide Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc), even in its sialylated form. This property has made jacalin suitable for studying various O-linked glycoproteins, particularly human IgA1 (Suresh Kumar and others 1982). Jacalin's uniqueness in being strongly mitogenic for human CD4+T lymphocytes has made it a useful tool for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 (Pereira-da-Silva and others 2006). Two novel 2′,4′,6′-trioxygenated flavanones, heteroflavanones A and B, were isolated from the root bark of A. heterophyllus. Their structures were elucidated as 5-hydroxy-7,2′,4′,6′-tetra methoxyflavanone and 8-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl) 5-hydroxy-7,2′,4′,6′-tetra methoxyflavanone (Chai-Ming and Chun-Nan 1993; Chun-Nan and others 1995). Three phenolic compounds were characterized as artocarpesin [(5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-6-β-methylbut-3-enyl) flavone], norartocarpetin (5,7,2′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone), and oxyresveratrol (trans-2,4,3′,5′-tetrahydroxystilbene) by spectroscopic methods (Venkataraman 2001) . The anti-inflammatory effects of these isolated compounds were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. These 3 compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity (Jha and others 1997). The carotenoids of A. heterophyllus were identified as the carotenes β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, as well as a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin (Chandrika and others 2004).