A clear causal relationship has been established between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer. Genital HPV infection is currently the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The recent 2001 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Consensus Guidelines have included HPV testing for management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities. Clinicians now face the challenge of deciding when to use HPV testing in follow-up of abnormal Pap tests. This article includes updates on HPV, cervical cancer screening, and HPV testing technology. Recommendations for integration of HPV testing into clinical practice are provided.