Vulvodynia is a chronic pain disorder that affects sexual function in adult women. The etiology of vulvodynia is poorly understood, making the condition difficult to diagnose and treat. Women with vulvodynia often suffer significant psychological distress and have difficulty finding a compassionate and supportive health care provider. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, educational strategies, and treatment options for vulvodynia with the aim of increasing primary care providers’ knowledge and assessment skills. Physical therapy and other nonsurgical treatment modalities are explored in depth.