This article reviews the different disease entities that fall under the classification of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The conditions included range from molar pregnancy to the malignant forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN). These disorders all arise from abnormal placental trophoblastic development. The different types of GTD, symptomatology, and diagnostic modalities are examined. The various methods of treatment are reviewed. Although the management of GTD and GTN falls outside the scope of midwifery practice, midwives need to be aware of the incidence, risk factors, and symptoms for specific types of GTD in order to be able to diagnose and refer for treatment in a timely manner. Psychosocial aspects that affect the woman who has not only had a pregnancy loss but also may be faced with a life-threatening illness are examined. The role of the midwife in the management, counseling, and follow-up of GTD and GTN is discussed.