This study was supported in part by the Finnish Cultural Foundation, Helsinki, Finland; and the Tauno Tönning Foundation, Oulu, Finland.
Dynamics and Rate-Dependence of the Spatial Angle between Ventricular Depolarization and Repolarization Wave Fronts during Exercise ECG
Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2010
©2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 264–275, July 2010
How to Cite
Kenttä, T., Karsikas, M., Kiviniemi, A., Tulppo, M., Seppänen, T. and Huikuri, H. V. (2010), Dynamics and Rate-Dependence of the Spatial Angle between Ventricular Depolarization and Repolarization Wave Fronts during Exercise ECG. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, 15: 264–275. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-474X.2010.00374.x
- Issue online: 13 JUL 2010
- Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2010
- vector loop;
- repolarization dynamics;
- exercise ECG;
- beat to beat
Background: QRS/T angle and the cosine of the angle between QRS and T-wave vectors (TCRT), measured from standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used in risk stratification of patients. This study assessed the possible rate dependence of these variables during exercise ECG in healthy subjects.
Methods: Forty healthy volunteers, 20 men and 20 women, aged 34.6 ± 3.4, underwent an exercise ECG testing. Twelve-lead ECG was recorded from each test subject and the spatial QRS/T angle and TCRT were automatically analyzed in a beat-to-beat manner with custom-made software. The individual TCRT/RR and QRST/RR patterns were fitted with seven different regression models, including a linear model and six nonlinear models.
Results: TCRT and QRS/T angle showed a significant rate dependence, with decreased values at higher heart rates (HR). In individual subjects, the second-degree polynomic model was the best regression model for TCRT/RR and QRST/RR slopes. It provided the best fit for both exercise and recovery. The overall TCRT/RR and QRST/RR slopes were similar between men and women during exercise and recovery. However, women had predominantly higher TCRT and QRS/T values. With respect to time, the dynamics of TCRT differed significantly between men and women; with a steeper exercise slope in women (women, −0.04/min vs −0.02/min in men, P < 0.0001). In addition, evident hysteresis was observed in the TCRT/RR slopes; with higher TCRT values during exercise.
Conclusions: The individual patterns of TCRT and QRS/T angle are affected by HR and gender. Delayed rate adaptation creates hysteresis in the TCRT/RR slopes.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010;15(3):264–275