Conflict of interest: S.D. received consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and research grants from Biotronik, St Jude Medical. A.A. received consulting fees from Sorin Group, Medtronic, Biotronik, EBR System, Merk, Biosense, Webster, BDS Cordis, Philips, Impulse Dynamics and speaker fee from Sorin Group, Medtronic, Biotronik, St Jude, Abbott. J.S. received consulting fees from Biosense-Webster, Siemens, St Jude Medical, Sanofi-Aventis, Ortho-McNeil, Medtronic, Ambucor, and research support from Biosense-Webster, Medtronic, Lifewatch. P.V. received consulting fees from Astra Zeneca, Bayer Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Medtronic, Inc., Sanofi Aventis, Servier, Menarini, and Pfizer, and research grants from Servier, Astra Zeneca, Sanofi Aventis, Medtronic Inc., St Jude Medical. D.L.H. served as a advisory capacity of St Jude Medical, Boston Scientific, Medtronic; speak at Educational venues of St Jude Medical, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, Biotronik and Sorin Medical and also as a Steering committee of St Jude Medical, Medtronic. P.K. received consulting fees from 3M Medica, Astra-Zeneca, Bayer, Boehringer, MEDA Pharma, Medtronic, Merck, MSD, Pfizer/BMS, Sanofi, Servier, Siemmes, Takeda, and research grants from 3M Medica, Cardiovascular Therapeutics, MEDA Pharma, Medtronic, OMRON, Sanofi, St Jude Medical. M.C. received consulting fees from Biotronik and St Jude Medical. S.M. is a consultant to Biotronik, Boston Scientific, Medtronic and St Jude Medical. W.Z. received a significant research grant from Boston Scientific. C.S. received research grants from Medtronic, St Jude, Boston Scientific. N.V. received research grants and consultancies from Biotronik, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, St Jude Medical.
ISHNE/EHRA Expert Consensus on Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs)
Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012
© 2012 European Society of Cardiology and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Volume 17, Issue 1, pages 36–56, January 2012
How to Cite
Dubner, S., Auricchio, A., Steinberg, J. S., Vardas, P., Stone, P., Brugada, J., Piotrowicz, R., Hayes, D. L., Kirchhof, P., Breithardt, G., Zareba, W., Schuger, C., Aktas, M. K., Chudzik, M., Mittal, S. and Varma, N. (2012), ISHNE/EHRA Expert Consensus on Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs). Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, 17: 36–56. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-474X.2011.00484.x
- Issue published online: 26 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012
- remote monitoring;
- cardiovascular implantable electronic devices;
- ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation
We are in the midst of a rapidly evolving era of technology-assisted medicine. The field of telemedicine provides the opportunity for highly individualized medical management in a way that has never been possible before. Evolving medical technologies using cardiac implantable devices with capabilities for remote monitoring permit evaluation of multiple parameters of cardiovascular physiology and risk, including cardiac rhythm, device function, blood pressure values, the presence of myocardial ischaemia, and the degree of compensation of congestive heart failure. Cardiac risk, device status, and response to therapies can now be assessed with these electronic systems of detection and reporting. This document reflects the extensive experience from investigators and innovators around the world who are shaping the evolution of this rapidly expanding field, focusing in particular on implantable pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (both with and without defibrillation properties), loop recorders, and hemodynamic monitoring devices. This document covers the basic methodologies, guidelines for their use, experience with existing applications, and the legal and reimbursement aspects associated with their use. To adequately cover this important emerging topic, the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology and the European Heart Rhythm Association combined their expertise in this field. We hope that the development of this field can contribute to improve care of our cardiovascular patients.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2012;17(1):36–56