There is growing evidence from experimental and clinical studies that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels as a marker of antioxidant status and the nutritional status assessed by bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Ninety-seven nondiabetic stable outpatient uremic adults undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) were recruited for this study. Impedance measurements were performed using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer after dialysis. GPx levels correlated with intracellular water (ICW) (r = 0.341, P = 0.011), ICW/total body weight (r = 0.320, P = 0.017), lean body mass (r = 0.300, P = 0.026) and total body cell mass (r = 0.339, P = 0.011). When patients were divided into two groups according to mean GPx levels (83.9 U/gr hemoglobin), the patients with higher GPx (GPx > 83.9 U/gr hemoglobin) had higher albumin (P = 0.038), lean body mass (P = 0.026), ICW (P = 0.011), and total body cell mass (P = 0.011) compared with those with lower GPx (GPx ≤ 83.9 U/gr hemoglobin). Furthermore, in the patients with higher GPx, body fat; extracellular water/total body water; illness marker and body fat mass index were lower than other group. In conclusion, our results reveal correlation indicating a relationship between antioxidant status (as measured by GPx) and nutritional status as assessed by BIA in nondiabetic HD patients.