The Metaparadigm of Nursing: Present Status and Future Refinements


  • Jacqueline Fawcett Ph.D., F.A.A.N.

    1. Associate Professor, and Section Chairperson, Science and Role Development, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Search for more papers by this author


The central concepts and themes of the discipline of nursing are identified and formalized as nursing's metaparadigm. Examples illustrate the direction provided by the metaparadigm for theory development. Refinements of the metaparadigm through conceptual models and programs of nursing research are proposed.