• breast self-examination;
  • health beliefs;
  • tool translation

Purpose: To translate to the Arabic language, adapt, and test Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scales to measure Jordanian women's beliefs about breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE). In Jordan, the primary site of cancer in women is the breast. Nopublished studies have been found which describe women's beliefs or practices about breast cancer and BSE in Jordan.

Design: Descriptive correlational, using a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of 519 female university students and employees in Jordan, 1999 to 2000.

Methods: Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scales were translated to Arabic, validated by professional judges, back-translated to English, and pretested. Analyses included descriptive statistics of all the study variables, internal consistency, reliability estimates, construct validity using factor analysis, and predictive validity using multiple regression analyses. The dependent variables were the frequency of practice of BSE and the intention to practice BSE.

Findings: Factor analysis yielded nine factors: confidence 1, confidence 2, benefits, susceptibility, barriers, seriousness 1, seriousness 2, motivation 1, and motivation 2. All items on each factor were from the same construct. Significant correlations were found between the two confidence factors, the two motivation factors, and the two seriousness factors. Alpha coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.89. All the health belief variables accounted for 21% of the variance in the frequency of practice of BSE, and 7% of the variance in the intended frequency of practice.

Conclusions: The translated version of Champion's scales was found to be a valid and reliable tool for use with Jordanian women. It can be used in planning and testing interventions to improve BSE beliefs and practice.