• nursing interventions;
  • clinical trials

Purpose: To propose guidelines for systematic and progressive testing of nursing interventions.

Organizing Framework: The National Institutes of Health has indicated four phases of clinical trials to guide research on treatments and interventions in the health sciences. Several important issues specific to nursing interventions need further clarification to enhance the interpretation of nursing clinical trials: (a) linking problem identification and nursing interventions, (b) articulating the content of interventions, (c) determining the strength and timing of interventions, (d) differentiating between efficacy and effectiveness research, and (e) incorporating multiple perspectives in intervention development.

Conclusions: Systematic and progressive nursing intervention programs of research are needed to address these issues and to enhance the science and practice of nursing.