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Changes in Nursing Education in the European Union

Authors

  • Adelaida Zabalegui,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Loreto Macia,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Josefa Márquez,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Roser Ricomá,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Carmen Nuin,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Isabel Mariscal,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Azucena Pedraz,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Concepción Germán,

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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  • Joaquín Moncho

    1. Adelaida Zabalegui, RN, PhD, Upsilon, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona; Loreto Macia, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; Josefa Márquez, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universidad de Almería, Almeria; Roser Ricomá, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili de Tarragona, Tarragona; Carmen Nuin, RN, MSN, Director of Nursing, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida; Isabel Mariscal, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva; Azucena Pedraz, RN, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Concepción Germán, RN, MSN, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza; Joaquín Moncho, PhD, Coordinator of the Advanced Nursing Studies, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante; all in Spain. Correspondence to Dr. Zabalegui, Director of Nursing, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut. Josep Trueta s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: azabaleg@csc.uic.es
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Abstract

Purpose: To provide an overview of changes in nursing education in the European Union (EU) within the framework of the Bologna Declaration, signed in 1999 by the European ministers of education, and to describe specific efforts and changes in Spain.

Organizing Constructs: (a) the Bologna Declaration process, its recent reforms in all disciplines including nursing, and perspectives on future developments; (b) the Tuning Project, designed and carried out by a group of European universities to meet the challenges posed by the Bologna Declaration; and (c) efforts in a group of Spanish universities to promote higher education in nursing.

Findings and Conclusions: These changes promote enhanced academic recognition, professionalism in nursing education, and graduates' competencies in practice in most European countries by specifying the undergraduate nursing degree as the minimal entrance level for practice and master's and doctoral programs for further career development.

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