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A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Dignified Dying

Authors

  • Ardith Z. Doorenbos,

    1. Ardith Z. Doorenbos, RN, PhD, Kappa Iota, Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Sarah A. Wilson, RN, PhD, Delta Gamma, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI; Amy Coenen, RN, PhD, FAAN, Eta Nu, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, WI. The authors acknowledge support from the International Council of Nurses. We also thank the nurses who participated in this study, as well as Karyn Huenemann for her review and suggestions, Amy L. Amherdt for her assistance with data entry, and Nagesh N. Borse for his assistance with data collection in North India. Correspondence to Dr. Doorenbos, 1959 NE Pacific Street, HSB T-620B B0X 357266 Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: doorenbo@u.washington.edu
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  • Sarah A. Wilson,

    1. Ardith Z. Doorenbos, RN, PhD, Kappa Iota, Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Sarah A. Wilson, RN, PhD, Delta Gamma, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI; Amy Coenen, RN, PhD, FAAN, Eta Nu, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, WI. The authors acknowledge support from the International Council of Nurses. We also thank the nurses who participated in this study, as well as Karyn Huenemann for her review and suggestions, Amy L. Amherdt for her assistance with data entry, and Nagesh N. Borse for his assistance with data collection in North India. Correspondence to Dr. Doorenbos, 1959 NE Pacific Street, HSB T-620B B0X 357266 Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: doorenbo@u.washington.edu
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  • Amy Coenen

    1. Ardith Z. Doorenbos, RN, PhD, Kappa Iota, Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Sarah A. Wilson, RN, PhD, Delta Gamma, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI; Amy Coenen, RN, PhD, FAAN, Eta Nu, Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, WI. The authors acknowledge support from the International Council of Nurses. We also thank the nurses who participated in this study, as well as Karyn Huenemann for her review and suggestions, Amy L. Amherdt for her assistance with data entry, and Nagesh N. Borse for his assistance with data collection in North India. Correspondence to Dr. Doorenbos, 1959 NE Pacific Street, HSB T-620B B0X 357266 Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: doorenbo@u.washington.edu
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Abstract

Purpose: To describe the characteristics of dignified dying and other terminology nurses used to describe this phenomenon in Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and the United States (US).

Design: A cross-sectional descriptive survey with a convenience sample of nurses who cared for dying patients in Ethiopia (n=14), India (n=229), Kenya (n=36), and the US (n=281). Data were collected between 2002 and 2004.

Methods: Nurses were recruited to complete the ICNP® Dignified Dying survey, which consists of demographic information, 2 open-ended questions, and 14 questions about characteristics of dignified dying.

Findings: The 14 characteristics on the dignified dying scale reliably measured dignified dying, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .91. All characteristics were rated as representative of dignified dying, with content validity scores ranging from .62 to .77. Factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution, which accounted for 53% of the variance.

Conclusions: Findings of this study contribute to the ongoing development of the International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP®) regarding the nursing phenomenon of dignified dying. The ICNP®, a unified nursing language system, is used to promote and facilitate scholarly exchange among nurses across countries.

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