Predictors of Maternal Responsiveness

Authors

  • Emily E. Drake,

    1. Emily E. Drake, RNC, PhD, Beta Kappa, Assistant Professor, University of Virginia School of Nursing, Charlottesville, VA; Sharron S. Humenick, RN, PhD, FAAN, Gamma Omega, Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Dr. Humenick is now deceased; Linda Amankwaa, RN, PhD, ARNP, Gamma Omega, Online Faculty, University of Phoenix; Janet Younger, RN, PhD, CPNP, Gamma Omega. Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Gayle Roux, RN, PhD, CNS, NP-C, Gamma Omega and Alpha Beta, Associate Dean for Faculty, Loyola University, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Chicago, IL. This study was funded in part by the Verhonick Clinical Research Award, Beta Kappa chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International. Correspondence to Dr. Drake, McLeod Hall, P.O. Box 8000782, Charlottesville, VA 22908–0782. E-mail: eje@virginia.edu
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sharron S. Humenick,

    1. Emily E. Drake, RNC, PhD, Beta Kappa, Assistant Professor, University of Virginia School of Nursing, Charlottesville, VA; Sharron S. Humenick, RN, PhD, FAAN, Gamma Omega, Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Dr. Humenick is now deceased; Linda Amankwaa, RN, PhD, ARNP, Gamma Omega, Online Faculty, University of Phoenix; Janet Younger, RN, PhD, CPNP, Gamma Omega. Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Gayle Roux, RN, PhD, CNS, NP-C, Gamma Omega and Alpha Beta, Associate Dean for Faculty, Loyola University, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Chicago, IL. This study was funded in part by the Verhonick Clinical Research Award, Beta Kappa chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International. Correspondence to Dr. Drake, McLeod Hall, P.O. Box 8000782, Charlottesville, VA 22908–0782. E-mail: eje@virginia.edu
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Linda Amankwaa,

    1. Emily E. Drake, RNC, PhD, Beta Kappa, Assistant Professor, University of Virginia School of Nursing, Charlottesville, VA; Sharron S. Humenick, RN, PhD, FAAN, Gamma Omega, Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Dr. Humenick is now deceased; Linda Amankwaa, RN, PhD, ARNP, Gamma Omega, Online Faculty, University of Phoenix; Janet Younger, RN, PhD, CPNP, Gamma Omega. Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Gayle Roux, RN, PhD, CNS, NP-C, Gamma Omega and Alpha Beta, Associate Dean for Faculty, Loyola University, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Chicago, IL. This study was funded in part by the Verhonick Clinical Research Award, Beta Kappa chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International. Correspondence to Dr. Drake, McLeod Hall, P.O. Box 8000782, Charlottesville, VA 22908–0782. E-mail: eje@virginia.edu
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Janet Younger,

    1. Emily E. Drake, RNC, PhD, Beta Kappa, Assistant Professor, University of Virginia School of Nursing, Charlottesville, VA; Sharron S. Humenick, RN, PhD, FAAN, Gamma Omega, Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Dr. Humenick is now deceased; Linda Amankwaa, RN, PhD, ARNP, Gamma Omega, Online Faculty, University of Phoenix; Janet Younger, RN, PhD, CPNP, Gamma Omega. Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Gayle Roux, RN, PhD, CNS, NP-C, Gamma Omega and Alpha Beta, Associate Dean for Faculty, Loyola University, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Chicago, IL. This study was funded in part by the Verhonick Clinical Research Award, Beta Kappa chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International. Correspondence to Dr. Drake, McLeod Hall, P.O. Box 8000782, Charlottesville, VA 22908–0782. E-mail: eje@virginia.edu
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Gayle Roux

    1. Emily E. Drake, RNC, PhD, Beta Kappa, Assistant Professor, University of Virginia School of Nursing, Charlottesville, VA; Sharron S. Humenick, RN, PhD, FAAN, Gamma Omega, Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Dr. Humenick is now deceased; Linda Amankwaa, RN, PhD, ARNP, Gamma Omega, Online Faculty, University of Phoenix; Janet Younger, RN, PhD, CPNP, Gamma Omega. Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Gayle Roux, RN, PhD, CNS, NP-C, Gamma Omega and Alpha Beta, Associate Dean for Faculty, Loyola University, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Chicago, IL. This study was funded in part by the Verhonick Clinical Research Award, Beta Kappa chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International. Correspondence to Dr. Drake, McLeod Hall, P.O. Box 8000782, Charlottesville, VA 22908–0782. E-mail: eje@virginia.edu
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Purpose: To explore maternal responsiveness in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery and to evaluate potential predictors of maternal responsiveness, including infant feeding, maternal characteristics, and demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and educational level.

Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the variables of maternal responsiveness, feeding patterns, and maternal characteristics in a convenience sample of 177 mothers in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery. The 60-item self-report instrument included scales to measure maternal responsiveness, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life as well as infant feeding questions and sociodemographic items. An online data-collection strategy was used, resulting in participants from 41 U.S. states.

Findings: Multiple regression analysis showed that satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and number of children, but not breastfeeding, explained a significant portion of the variance in self-reported maternal responsiveness scores. In this analysis, sociodemographic variables such as age, education, income, and work status showed little or no relationship to maternal responsiveness scores.

Conclusions: This study provides additional information about patterns of maternal behavior in the transition to motherhood and some of the variables that influence that transition. Satisfaction with life was a new predictor of maternal responsiveness. However, with only 15% of the variance explained by the predictors in this study, a large portion of the variance in maternal responsiveness remains unexplained. Further research in this area is needed.

Ancillary