Psychometric Analysis of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM)


Anndrea Flint, Clinical Nurse Consultant-Special Care Nursery, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Butterfield Street, Herston, 4029, Brisbane, Australia. E-mail:


Purpose: To undertake rigorous psychometric testing of the newly developed contemporary work environment measure (the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure [B-PEM]) using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

Methods: Content validity of the 33-item measure was established by a panel of experts. Initial testing involved 195 nursing staff using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation (orthogonal) and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using data from a further 983 nursing staff.

Results: Principal component factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution with eigenvalues greater than 1 that explained 52.53% of the variance. These factors were then verified using confirmatory factor analysis. Goodness-of-fit indices showed an acceptable fit overall with the full model, explaining 21% to 73% of the variance. Deletion of items took place throughout the evolution of the instrument, resulting in a 26-item, four-factor measure called the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure-Tested.

Conclusions: The B-PEM has undergone rigorous psychometric testing, providing evidence of internal consistency and goodness-of-fit indices within acceptable ranges. The measure can be utilised as a subscale or total score reflective of a contemporary nursing work environment.

Clinical Relevance: An up-to-date instrument to measure practice environment may be useful for nursing leaders to monitor the workplace and to assist in identifying areas for improvement, facilitating greater job satisfaction and retention.