An Integrative Review of Comprehensive Sex Education for Adolescent Girls in Kenya


Kafuli Agbemenu, University of Pittsburgh, School of Nursing, 3500 Victoria Street, Room 440, Pittsburgh, PA 15261. E-mail:


Purpose: The purposes of this article are to identify and review comprehensive sex education programs (CSEPs) available to adolescent females in Kenya, East Africa, to discuss barriers to implementing CSEPs in Kenya, and to highlight the role of nurses in improving and institutionalizing available CSEPs in Kenya.

Design: Integrative review.

Methods: A systematic search of six databases and other Internet sources was conducted to identify CSEPs currently available to adolescent girls in Kenya. Five CSEPs were identified. The CSEPs were evaluated using established criteria.

Findings: All of the CSEPs were well designed and almost all were implemented with fidelity. Four of the five CSEPs met all of the criteria for well-designed CSEPs with only one showing lack of sustainability. Tuko Pamoja (We Are One) shows promise for wider implementation.

Conclusions: CSEPs are a valid intervention leading to the reduction of teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections. The reach of the identified CSEPs varies, and sustainability is challenging due to lack of government and community support, lack of funding, and unsustainable teaching modalities.

Clinical Relevance: Nurses can serve as liaisons between adolescents, the community, and the Kenyan government in promoting CSEPs. Nurses should be more readily utilized in educating community members and policy makers about the need for CSEPs in all Kenyan high schools. Nursing students can also be utilized in their community health role to teach curricula of CSEPs. Nurses should advocate for all adolescents to access reproductive health services and for all healthcare providers to provide comprehensive reproductive health care to them.