Evo Morales, the indigenous, leftist president of Bolivia, has faced serious challenges to his social-democratic project. His new constitution and proposals for redistributive legislation have sparked much resistance from white elites in the country's eastern region. In this article, I explore the component elements of right-wing movement building in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, which include festive and celebratory performances of regional pride and paramilitaristic carnivals of violence. I suggest that these kinds of spectacles—one of invented cultural tradition, the other of aggression and brutality—represent the desperate attempt of a minority white, mestizo population to restore political and economic order through extralegal means.
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