The Green Revolution's ghost: Unruly subjects of participatory development in rural Indonesia



After the Batu Hijau mine in Sumbawa, Indonesia, began operating in 2000, mine managers identified area farmers as a top security risk because they were threatening to shut down the mine unless they were given jobs there. Among various efforts to get local residents “back on the land,” the mine began sponsoring participatory integrated pest management trainings that were supposed to turn residents into productive and self-reliant subjects. Instead, these trainings evoked subjects who claimed—through their resistance to certain aspects of the trainings—that they were dependent on and entitled to conventional forms of development aid from the mine. [participatory development, subjectivity, Indonesia, mining, environment]