Using Visual Stimuli in Ethnography


George Spindler is a professor emeritus of anthropology and education at Stanford University. Along with Louise Spindler, Solon Kimball, and Elizabeth Eddy, he founded the field of educational anthropology in the 1950s.


In this article, the work of George and Louise Spindler is reviewed with visual stimuli ranging from the Rorschach technique and Thematic Apperception Technique to inventions of their own, the Cross-Cultural Sensitization Technique, the Instrumental Activities Inventory, and the Cross-Cultural, Comparative, Reflective Interview Technique. The sites of the various researches, the methods of application, and a brief analysis of the results are included. [interview techniques, culture and personality, ethnography and education]