This article examines parent involvement (PI) as a ritual system using Turner's concept of root paradigms. Through a twofold analysis, I argue that the highly ritualized nature of PI practices creates a group identity among mainstream parents and schools that marginalizes diverse families. First, I point out three root paradigms in the ritual system of PI. Second, I provide an empirical example using the experiences of Haitian immigrant parents in greater Boston. [parent involvement, schools, rituals, immigrants, social class]
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