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Keywords:

  • African American Vernacular English (AAVE);
  • Native American languages;
  • language endangerment;
  • inequality;
  • White racism;
  • racialization;
  • race

African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is not at all endangered, while all of the indigenous languages of North America are. The speakers of these languages share a common history of oppression, and analysis of these linguistic systems, the ways of speaking that are found within the associated communities, and the efforts of the communities to deploy these languages in positive and empowering frameworks, must all be understood within the framework of the encompassing and dominant cultural system of White racism.