I would like to thank Edward Kick, Brett Clark, Andrew Jorgenson, Feinian Chen, Laura McKinney and the anonymous reviewers at Rural Sociology for their advice and helpful comments on many fronts.
The “Hamburger Connection” as Ecologically Unequal Exchange: A Cross-National Investigation of Beef Exports and Deforestation in Less-Developed Countries
Version of Record online: 26 APR 2010
Copyright © 2010, by the Rural Sociological Society
Volume 75, Issue 2, pages 270–299, June 2010
How to Cite
Austin, K. (2010), The “Hamburger Connection” as Ecologically Unequal Exchange: A Cross-National Investigation of Beef Exports and Deforestation in Less-Developed Countries. Rural Sociology, 75: 270–299. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2010.00017.x
- Issue online: 7 JUN 2010
- Version of Record online: 26 APR 2010
This study explores Norman Myers's concept of the “hamburger connection” as a form of ecologically unequal exchange, where more-developed nations are able to transfer the environmental costs of beef consumption to less-developed nations. I used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to test whether deforestation in less-developed nations is associated with the vertical flow of beef exports to more-developed nations. An interaction term also examines whether this relationship is more pronounced in Latin American nations, as posited by Myers. The sample includes all nondesert, less-developed nations for which there are available data across all indicators (N= 48). Overall, the results confirm the tested hypotheses. The findings also provide unique contextual support for ecologically unequal exchange theory by demonstrating that unequal trade relationships can operate at the level of a single commodity type.