Guinea fowl were inoculated rectally with Histomonas meleagridis to produce histomoniasis. The birds were infected readily by this unnatural route. Severe cecal involvement was frequent and long-lasting but liver lesions and death were rare. Turkeys given the same inoculum had high levels of liver involvement and mortality. Guinea fowl responded much less severely to infection with H. meleagridis when infected by a natural route (ingestion of a vector) rather than by rectal inoculation. Thus, naturally acquired infections with H. meleagridis appear to be of small consequence in the guinea fowl.