ABSTRACT. Eight isolates, identified as either Acanthamoeba castellanii or A. polyphaga from human eye infections, contact lens containers, and soil in Japan, were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondrial DNA was digested with either Bgl II, EcoR I, Hind III, Hpa I, Sca I or Xba I, electrophoresed in agarose gels, and stained with ethidium bromide. Four distinct RFLP phenotypes that refer to the collection of six fragment size patterns obtained for a single strain with six enzymes, were discovered among the eight strains used in this study. Three strains morphologically classified as A. polyphaga share a single RFLP phenotype with the Ma strain of A. castellanii. The interspecific sequence differences of 7.06–12.74% in DNA nucleotide were estimated from the proportion of DNA fragments shared by each pair of mtDNA.