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ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parasites from a cross-sectional study conducted in two national hospitals in Lima, Peru were genetically characterized to deteimine the diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in HIV-positive people. A total of 2,672 patients participated in this study and provided 13,937 specimens. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by microscopy in 354 (13.3%) of the patients. Analysis of 951 Cryptosporidium- positive specimens from 300 patients using a small subunit rRNA-based PCR-RFLP tool identified 6 genotypes; Cryptosporidium hominis was the species most frequently detected (67.5%), followed by C. meleagridis (12.6%) and C. parvum (11.3%). Cryptosporidium canis (4.0%), C. felis (3.3%), and Cryptosporidium pig genotype (0.5%) were also found. These findings indicate that C. hominis is the predominant species in Peruvian HIV-positive persons, and that zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. account for about 30% of cryptosporidiosis in these patients.