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Keywords:

  • Algae;
  • amoebae;
  • ciliates;
  • flagellates;
  • fungi;
  • microbiology;
  • microorganisms;
  • parasites;
  • plankton;
  • protozoa;
  • systematics;
  • taxonomy

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)

Abstract. This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular phylogenetic studies. We propose a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics. The vocabulary of the taxonomy is updated, particularly to clarify the naming of groups that have been repositioned. We recognize six clusters of eukaryotes that may represent the basic groupings similar to traditional “kingdoms.” The multicellular lineages emerged from within monophyletic protist lineages: animals and fungi from Opisthokonta, plants from Archaeplastida, and brown algae from Stramenopiles.


Literature Cited

Literature Cited

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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AMOEBOZOA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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APUSOMONADIDAE

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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ARCHAEPLASTIDA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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  • Harper, J. T. & Keeling, P. J. 2003. Nucleus-encoded, plastid-targeted glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehycrogenase (GAPDH) indicates a single origin for chromalveolates plastids. Mol. Biol. Evol., 20: 17301735.
  • Hoef-Emden, K. & Melkonian, M. 2003. Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae): a combination of molecular phylogeny and morphology provides insights into a long-hidden dimorphism. Protist, 154: 371409.
  • Keeling, P. J. 2003. Congruent evidence from α-tubulin and β-tubulin gene phylogenies for a zygomycete origin of microsporidia. Fungal Genet. Biol., 38: 298309.
  • Kooistra, W. H. C. F., De Stefano, M., Mann, D. G. & Medlin, L. K. 2003. The phylogeny of the diatoms. Progr. Mol. Subcell. Biol., 33: 5997.
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  • Medlin, L. K. & Kaczmarska, I. 2004. Evolution of the diatoms: V. Morphological and cytological support for the major clades and a taxonomic revision. Phycologia, 43: 245270.
  • Novarino, G. 2003. A companion to the identification of cryptomonad flagellates (Cryptophyceae=Cryptomonadea). Hydrobiologia, 502: 225270.
  • Patterson, D. J. 1989. Stramenopiles, chromophytes from a protistan perspective. In: Green, J. C., Leadbeater, B. S. C. & Diver, W. L. (ed.), The Chromophyte Algae, Problems and Perspectives. Clarendon Press, Oxford. p 357379.
  • Peters, A. F. & Ramírez, M. E. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of small brown algae, with special reference to the systematic position of Caepidium antarcticum (Adenocystaceae, Ectocarpales). Cryptogamie, Algol., 22: 187200.
  • Peters, A. F. & Clayton, M. N. 1998. Molecular and morphological investigation of three brown algal genera with stellate plastids: evidence for Scytothamnales ord. nov. (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia, 37: 106113.
  • Round, F. E., Crawford, R. M. & Mann, D. G. 1990. The Diatoms. Biology and Morphology of the Genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Rousseau, F. & De Reviers, B. 1999a. Phylogenetic relationships within the Fucales (Phaeophyceae) based on combined partial SSU+LSU rDNA sequence data. Eur. J. Phycol., 34: 5364.
  • Rousseau, F. & De Reviers, B. 1999b. Circumscription of the order Ectocarpales (Phaeophyceae): bibliographical synthesis and molecular evidence. Cryptogamie, Algol., 20: 518.
  • Rousseau, F., Burrowes, R., Peters, A. F., Kuhlenkamp, R. & De Reviers, B. 2001. A comprehensive phylogeny of the Phaeophyceae based on nrDNA sequences resolves the earliest divergences. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris III, 324: 305319.
  • Silva, P. C. & De Reviers, B. 2000. Ordinal names in the Phaeophyceae. Cryptogamie, Algol., 21: 4958.
  • Sym, S. & Kawachi, M. 2000. Ultrastructure of Calyptrosphaera radiata, sp. nov. (Pyrmnesiophyceae, Haptophyta). Eur. J. Phycol., 35: 283293.
  • Yoon, H. S., Hackett, J. D., Pinto, G. & Bhattacharya, D. 2002. The single ancient origin of chromist plastids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 99: 1550715512.

EXCAVATA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
  • Busse, I. & Preisfeld, A. 2002. Systematics of primary osmotrophic euglenids: a molecular approach to the phylogeny of Distigma and Astasia (Euglenozoa). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 53: 617624.
  • O'Kelly, C. J., Silberman, J. D., Amaral Zettler, L. A., Nerad, T. A. & Sogin, M. L. 2003. Monopylocystis visvesvarai. n. gen., n. sp. and Sawyeria marylandensis n. gen., n. sp: two new amitochondrial heterolobosean amoebae from anoxic environments. Protist, 154: 281290.
  • Moreira, D., Lopez-Garcia, P. & Vickerman, K. 2004. An updated view of kinetoplastid phylogeny using environmental sequences and a closer outgroup: proposal for a new classification of the class Kinetoplastea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 54: 18611865.
  • Simpson, A. G. B. 1997. The identity and composition of the Euglenozoa. Archiv. Protist., 148: 318328.
  • Simpson, A. G. B. 2003. Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 53: 17591779.
  • Simpson, A. G. B. & Roger, A. J. 2004. Excavata and the origin of the amitochondriate eukaryotes. In: Hirt, P. H. & Horner, D. S. (ed.), Organelles, genomes and eukaryotic phylogeny. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. p. 2753.
  • Simpson, A. G. B., Gill, E. E., Callahan, H. A., Litaker, R. W. & Roger, A. J. 2004. Early evolution within kinetoplastids (Euglenozoa) and the late emergence of trypanosomatids. Protist, 155: 407422.

FORAMINIFERA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
  • Archibald, J. M., Longet, D., Pawlowski, J. & Keeling, P. J. 2003. A novel polyubiquitin structure in Cercozoa and Foraminifera: evidence for a new eukaryotic supergroup. Mol. Biol. Evol., 20: 6266.
  • Bowser, S. S. & Travis, J. L. 2002. Reticulopodia: structural and behavioral basis for the suprageneric placement of Granuloreticulosan protists. J. Foram. Res., 32: 440447.
  • Habura, A., Rosen, D. R. & Bowser, S. S. 2004. Predicted secondary structure of the foraminiferal SSU 3′ major domain reveals a molecular synapomorphy for granuloreticulosean protists. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 51: 464471.
  • Keeling, P. J. 2001. Foraminifera and Cercozoa are related in actin phylogeny: two orphans find a home? Mol. Biol. Evol., 18: 15511557.
  • Lee, J. J., Pawlowski, J., Debenay, J.-P., Whittaker, J., Banner, F., Gooday, A. J., Tendal, O., Haynes, J. & Faber, W. W. 2002. Phylum Granuloreticulosa. In: Lee, J. J., Leedale, G. F. & Bradbury, P. (ed.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. 2nd ed. Society of Protozoologists, Lawrence, KS. (Year 2000). p. 872951.
  • Loeblich, A. R. & Tappan, H. 1988. Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification. Vols. 1–2. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
  • Longet, D., Archibald, J. M., Keeling, P. J. & Pawlowski, J. 2003. Foraminifera and Cercozoa share a common origin according to RNA polymerase II phylogenies. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 53: 17351739.
  • Pawlowski, J. 2000. Introduction to the molecular systematics of foraminifera. Micropaleontology, 46 (Suppl. 1): 112.
  • Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J. & Richardson, S. L. 2003a. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the Xenophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 50: 483487.
  • Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Cedhagen, T., Habura, A. & Bowser, S. S. 2002. Phylogeny of allogromiid Foraminifera inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences. J. Foram. Res., 32: 334343.
  • Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Gooday, A. J., Cedhagen, T., Habura, A. & Bowser, S. S. 2003b. The evolution of early Foraminifera. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 100: 1149411498.
  • Sen Gupta, B. K. 1999. Modern Foraminifera. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Travis, J. L. & Bowser, S. S. 1991. The Motility of Foraminifera. In: Lee, J. J. & Anderson, O. R. (ed.), Biology of Foraminifera. Academic Press, London. p. 91155.

FUNGI

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
  • Alexopoulos, C. J., Mims, C. W. & Blackwell, M. 1996. Introductory Mycology. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Barr, D. J. S. 1990. Phylum Chytridiomycota. In: Margulis, L., Corliss, J. O., Melkonian, M. & Chapman, D. J. (ed.), Handbook of Protoctista. Jones & Bartlett, Boston. p. 454466.
  • Barr, D. J. S. 2001. Chytridiomycota. In: McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. & Lemke, P. A. (ed.), The Mycota. VIIA. Systematics and Evolution. Springer Verlag, Berlin. p. 93112.
  • Bauer, R., Oberwinkler, F. & Vinky, K. 1997. Ultrastructure markers and systematics in smut fungi and allied taxa. Can. J. Bot., 73: 12731275.
  • Bauer, R., Begerow, D., Oberwinkler, F., Piepenbring, M. & Berbee, M. L. 2001. Ustilaginomycetes. In: McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. & Lemke, P. A. (ed.), The Mycota VII: Part B. Systematics and Evolution. Springer Verlag, Berlin. p. 5783.
  • Begerow, D., Baur, R. & Oberwinkler, F. 1997. Phylogenetic studies on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of smut fungi and related taxa. Can. J. Bot., 75: 20452056.
  • Benny, G. L. 2001. Zygomycota: Trichomycetes. In: McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. & Lemke, P. A. (ed.), The Mycota VII. Systematics and Evolution. Part A. Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 147160.
  • Benny, G. L., Humber, R. A. & Morton, J. B. 2001. Zygomycota: Zygomycetes. In: McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. & Lemke, P. A. (ed.), The Mycota VII. Systematics and Evolution. Part A. Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 113146.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2001. What are fungi? In: McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. & Lemke, P. A. (ed.), The Mycota VII, Part A, Systematics. Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 337.
  • Dick, M. W. 2001. Straminipilous Fungi: Systematics of the Peronosporomycetes including Accounts of the Marine Straminipilous Protists, the Pasmodiophorids and Similar Organisms. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • Eriksson, O. E. & Winka, K. 1997. Supraordinal taxa of Ascomycota. Myconet, 1: 116. http://www.umu.se/myconet/Myconet.html
  • Eriksson, O. E. & Winka, K. 1998. Families and higher taxa of Ascomycota. Myconet, 1: 1724. http://www.ekbot.umu.se/pmg/18s/fam.rtf.html
  • Eriksson, O. E., Baral, H. O., Currah, R. S., Hansen, K., Kurtzman, C. P., Læssøe, T. & Rambold, G. 2004. Outline of Ascomycota. Myconet, 10: 199. http://www.umu.se/myconet/Myconet.html
  • Emerson, R. & Whisler, H. C. 1968. Cultural studies of Oedogoniomyces and Harpochytrium and a proposal to place them in a new order of aquatic Phycomycetes. Arch. Mikrobiol., 61: 195211.
  • Fast, N. M., Logsdon, J. M. Jr. & Doolittle, W. F. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene from Nosema locustae: evidence for a Microsporidia-Fungi relationship and spliceosomal intron loss. Mol. Biol. Evol., 16: 14151419.
  • Gargas, A., DePriest, P. T., Grube, M. & Tehler, A. 1995. Multiple origins of lichen symbioses in fungi suggested by SSU rDNA phylogeny. Science, 268: 14921495.
  • Hirt, R. P., Logsdon, J. M. Jr., Healy, B., Dorey, M. W., Doolittle, W. F. & Embley, T. M. 1999. Microsporidia are related to Fungi: evidence from the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and other proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 96: 580585.
  • James, T. Y., Porter, D., Leander, C. A., Vilgalys, R. & Longcore, J. E. 2000. Molecular phylogenetics of the Chytridiomycota supports the utility of ultrastructural data in chytrid systematics. Can. J. Bot., 78: 336350.
  • Karling, J. S. 1977. Chytridiomycetarum Iconographia. Lubrecht & Cramer, Monticello, New York.
  • Keeling, P. J. 2003. Congruent evidence from α tubulin and β tubulin gene phylogenies for a zygomycete origin of microsporidia. Fungal Genet. Biol., 38: 298309.
  • Kirk, P. M., Cannon, P. F., David, J. C. & Stalpers, J. A. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi. 9th ed. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
  • Liu, Y. J. & Hall, B. D. 2004. Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 101: 45074512.
  • Lumbsch, H. T., Schmitt, I., Lindemuth, R., Miller, A., Mangold, A., Fernandez, F. & Huhndorf, S. 2000. Performance of four ribosomal DNA regions to infer higher-level phylogenetic relationships of inoperculate euascomycetes (Leotiomyceta). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 512524.
  • Lutzoni, F., Kauff, F., Cox, C. J., McLaughlin, D., Celio, G., Dentinger, B., Padamsee, M., Hibbett, D., James, T. Y., Baloch, E., Grube, M., Reeb, V., Hofstetter, V., Schoch, C., Arnold, A. E., Miadlikowska, J., Spatafora, J., Johnson, D., Hambleton, S., Crockett, M., Shoemaker, R., Sung, G.-H., Lücking, R., Lumbsch, T., O'Donnell, K., Binder, M., Diederich, P., Ertz, D., Gueidan, C., Hansen, K., Harris, R. C., Hosaka, K., Lim, Y.-W., Matheny, B., Nishida, H., Pfister, D., Rogers, J., Rossman, A., Schmitt, I., Sipman, H., Stone, J., Sugiyama, J., Yahr, R. & Vilgalys, R. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. Am. J. Bot., 91: 14461480.
  • Moncalvo, J.-M. 2005. Molecular systematics—major fungal phylogenetic groups and fungal species concepts. In: Xu., J.-P. (ed.), Evolutionary Genetics of Fungi. Horizon Scientific Press, Wymondham, Norfolk, UK. (in press)
  • Nishida, H. & Sugiyama, J. 1994. Archiascomycetes: detection of a major new linage within the Ascomycota. Mycoscience, 35: 361366.
  • Schüßler, A., Schwarzott, D. & Walker, C. 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycol. Res., 105: 14131421.
  • Shaffer, R. L. 1975. The major groups of Basidiomycetes. Mycologia, 75: 10111018.
  • Sparrow, F. K. 1960. The Aquatic Phycomycetes. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
  • Swann, E. C. & Taylor, J. W. 1995. Phylogenetic perspectives on Basidiomycete systematics: evidence from the 18S rRNA gene. Can. J. Bot., 73 (Suppl. 1): S862S868.
  • Swann, E. C., Frieders, E. M. & McLaughlin, D. J. 2001. Urediniomycetes. In: McLaughlin, D. J., McLaughlin, E. G. & Lemke, P. A. (ed.), The Mycota VII Part B. Systematics and Evolution. Springer Verlag, Berlin. p. 3783.
  • Tanabe, Y., O'Donnell, K., Saikawa, M. & Sugiyama, J. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of parasitic Zygomycota (Dimargaritales, Zoopagales) based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 16: 253262.
  • Tanabe, Y., Saikawa, M., Watanabe, M. M. & Sugiyama, J. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Zygomycota based on EF-1 and RPB1 sequences: limitations and utility of alternative markers to rDNA. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 30: 438449.

HELIOZOA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E. E. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of centrohelid Heliozoa, a novel lineage of bikont eukaryotes that arose by ciliary loss. J. Mol. Evol., 56: 387396.
  • Mikrjukov, K. A. 2000. System and phylogeny of Heliozoa: should this taxon exist in modern systems of protists? Zool. Zhur., 79: 883897.
  • Nikolaev, S. I., Berny, C., Fahrni, J., Bolivar, I., Polet, S., Myl'nikov, A. P., Aleshin, V. V., Petrov, N. B. & Pawlowski, J. 2004. The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 101: 80668071.
  • Nikolaev, S. I., Berny, C., Fahrni, J., Myl'nikov, A. P., Petrov, N. B. & Pawlowski, J. 2003. Genetic relationships between desmothoracid Heliozoa and Gymnophryid amoebas as evidenced by comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 18S rRNA genes. Doklady Biol. Sci., 393: 553556.

OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
  • Adoutte, A., Balavoine, G., Lartillot, N., Lespinet, O., Prud'homme, B. & De Rosa, R. 2000. The new animal phyogeny: reliability and implications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 97: 44534456.
  • Borchiellini, C., Chombard, C., Manuel, M., Alivon, E., Vacelet, J. & Boury-Esnault, N. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Demospongiae: implications for classification and scenarios of character evolution. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 32: 823837.
  • Borchiellini, C., Manuel, M., Alivon, E., Le Parco, Y., Vacelet, J. & Boury-Esnault, N. 2003. Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of Calcinea and Calcaronea, high level of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry. Syst. Biol., 52: 311333.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E. E. 1995. The opalozoan Apusomonas is related to the common ancestor of animals, fungi and choanoflagellates. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 261: 16.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E. E. 1997. Sarcomonad ribosomal RNA sequences, rhizopod phylogeny, and the origin of euglyphid amoebae. Arch. Protistenkd., 147: 227236.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E. E. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. J. Mol. Evol., 56: 540563.
  • Eriksson, O. E., Baral, H.-O., Currah, R. S., Hansen, K., Kurtzman, C. P., Rambold, G. & Laessøe, T. 2004. Outline of Ascomycota. Myconet, 10: 199.
  • Gromov, B. V. 2000. Algal parasites of the genera Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, and Pseudoaphelidium from the Cienkovski's “Monadinea” group as representatives of a new class. Zool. Zhurn., 79: 517525.
  • Hertel, L. A., Bayne, C. J. & Loker, E. S. 2002. The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea. Int. J. Parasitol., 32: 11831191.
  • Karpov, S. A. & Leadbeater, B. S. C. 1997. Cell and nuclear division in freshwater choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata. Eur. J. Protistol., 33: 323334.
  • Karpov, S. A. & Leadbeater, B. S. C. 1998. The cytoskeleton structure and composition in choanoflagellates. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 45: 361367.
  • Leadbeater, B. S. C. & Thomson, H. 2002. Choanoflagellata. In: Lee, J. J., Leedale, G. F. & Bradbury, P. (ed.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. 2nd ed. Society of Protozoologists, Lawrence, KS. (Year 2000). p. 1438.
  • Medina, M., Collins, A. G., Silberman, J. D. & Sogin, M. L. 2001. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 98: 97079712.
  • Mendoza, L., Taylor, J. W. & Ajello, L. 2002. The class Mesomycetozoa: a heterogeneous group of microorganisms at the animal-fungal boundary. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 56: 315344.
  • Mollicone, M. R. & Longcore, J. E. 1999. Zoospore ultrastructure of Gonapodya polymorpha. Mycologia, 91: 727734.
  • Raghu-Kumar, S. 1987. Occurrence of the thraustochytrid, Corallochytrium limacisperum gen. et sp. nov. in the coral reef lagoons of the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Bot. Mar., 30: 8389.
  • Ruiz-Trillo, I., Inagaki, Y., Davis, L. A., Landfald, B. & Roger, A. J. 2004. Capsaspora owczazaki is an independent opisthokont lineage. Curr. Biol., 14: R946R947.
  • Tong, S. M. 1997. Heterotrophic flagellates and other protists from Southampton waters, UK. Ophelia, 47: 71131.
  • Wallberg, A., Thollesson, M., Farris, J. S. & Jondelius, U. 2004. The phylogenetic position of the comb-jellies (Ctenophora) and the importance of taxonomic sampling. Cladistics, 20: 558578.
  • Zhukov, B. F. & Karpov, S. A. 1985. Freshwater choanoflagellates. L. Nauka (in Russian with English contents)
  • Zrvavy, J., Mihulka, S., Kepka, P. & Bezdek, A. 1998. Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence. Cladistics, 14: 249285.

RADIOLARIA

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
  • Amaral Zettler, L., Sogin, M. L. & Caron, D. A. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships between the Acantharea and the Polycystinea: a molecular perspective on Haeckel's Radiolaria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA), 94: 11411416.
  • Anderson, O. R. 1983. Radiolaria. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Anderson, O. R., Nigrini, C., Boltovskoy, D., Takahashi, K. & Swanberg, N. R. 2002. Class Polycystinea. In: Lee, J. J., Leedale, G. F. & Bradbury, P. (ed.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. 2nd ed. Society of Protozoologists, Lawrence, KS. (Year 2000). p. 9941022.
  • Polet, S., Berney, C., Fahrni, J. & Pawlowski, J. 2004. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel's Radiolaria. Protist, 155: 5363.
  • Riedel, W. R. 1971. Systematic classification of polycystine Radiolaria. In: Riedel, W. R. & Funnell, B. M. (ed.), The Micropaleontology of Oceans. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. p. 649660.
  • Takahashi, K. & Anderson, O. R. 2002. Class Phaeodaria. In: Lee, J. J., Leedale, G. F. & Bradbury, P. (ed.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. 2nd ed. Society of Protozoologists, Lawrence, KS. (Year 2000). p. 981994.

RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Literature Cited
  5. APPENDIX 1. SELECTED REFERENCES TO PROTIST GROUPS ALVEOLATA
  6. AMOEBOZOA
  7. APUSOMONADIDAE
  8. ARCHAEPLASTIDA
  9. CHROMALVEOLATA/STRAMENOPILES/CRYPTOPHYCEAE/HAPTOPHYTA
  10. EXCAVATA
  11. FORAMINIFERA
  12. FUNGI
  13. HELIOZOA
  14. OPISTHOKONTA (SEE ALSO FUNGI)
  15. RADIOLARIA
  16. RHIZARIA (SEE ALSO FORAMINIFERA AND RADIOLARIA)
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