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Molecular Phylogenetic Position of the Genera Stephanonympha and Caduceia (Parabasalia) Inferred from Nuclear Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequences

Authors

  • CHRISTOPHE NOËL,

    1. Inserm, U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France, and
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    • 1Present address: School of Biology, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

  • SATOKO NODA,

    1. Environmental Molecular Biology Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, and
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  • CLEA MANTINI,

    1. Inserm, U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France, and
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  • MICHAEL F. DOLAN,

    1. Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA, and
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  • SHIGEHARU MORIYA,

    1. Environmental Molecular Biology Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, and
    2. Laboratory of Environmental Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Yokohama City University, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ward, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan, and
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  • PILAR DELGADO-VISCOGLIOSI,

    1. Département Eaux et Environnement, Institut Pasteur, Laboratoire de Recherches Appliquées, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France
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  • TOSHIAKI KUDO,

    1. Environmental Molecular Biology Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, and
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  • MONIQUE CAPRON,

    1. Inserm, U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France, and
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  • RAYMOND J. PIERCE,

    1. Inserm, U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France, and
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  • MORIYA OHKUMA,

    1. Environmental Molecular Biology Laboratory, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan, and
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  • ERIC VISCOGLIOSI

    1. Inserm, U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France, and
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Corresponding Author: E. Viscogliosi, Inserm, U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille cedex, France—Telephone number: (33) 3 20 87 79 61; Fax number: (33) 3 20 87 78 88; e-mail: eric.viscogliosi@pasteur-lille.fr

Abstract

ABSTRACT. Nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from trichomonad symbionts of termites that belong to the Devescovinidae (Caduceia versatilis) and polymastigont Calonymphidae (Stephanonympha nelumbium). The unidentified SSU rRNA sequence Nk3, previously obtained from the termite Neotermes koshunensis, has also been shown to derive from a Stephanonympha sp. by in situ hybridization. These sequences were analysed in a broad phylogeny including nearly all identified parabasalid sequences available in the databases, and some as yet unidentified sequences likely deriving from the new order Cristamonadida (Devescovinidae, Calonymphidae, and hypermastigids Lophomonadida). A global phylogeny of parabasalids reveals a partial agreement between the clades identified in this work and the last classification of this phylum into four orders. However, this classification is still incongruent with our data and new taxonomic considerations are proposed. The analysis confirms the monophyly of the Cristamonadida and separates this order into two groups: the first unites nearly all the Devescovinidae including Caduceia and the Calonymphidae Coronympha and Metacoronympha, whereas the second group is composed of a few Devescovinidae, Lophomonadida, and Calonymphidae such as Stephanonympha. Caduceia is closely related to Devescovina, corroborating the marked morphological similarity between these two genera whereas Stephanonympha groups together with the Calonymphidae Snyderella and Calonympha. These data also confirm the polyphyly of the families Devescovinidae and Calonymphidae and support the arrangement of the axostyle–pelta complexes as a valuable character for taxonomic considerations within the Calonymphidae.

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