ABSTRACT. Nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from trichomonad symbionts of termites that belong to the Devescovinidae (Caduceia versatilis) and polymastigont Calonymphidae (Stephanonympha nelumbium). The unidentified SSU rRNA sequence Nk3, previously obtained from the termite Neotermes koshunensis, has also been shown to derive from a Stephanonympha sp. by in situ hybridization. These sequences were analysed in a broad phylogeny including nearly all identified parabasalid sequences available in the databases, and some as yet unidentified sequences likely deriving from the new order Cristamonadida (Devescovinidae, Calonymphidae, and hypermastigids Lophomonadida). A global phylogeny of parabasalids reveals a partial agreement between the clades identified in this work and the last classification of this phylum into four orders. However, this classification is still incongruent with our data and new taxonomic considerations are proposed. The analysis confirms the monophyly of the Cristamonadida and separates this order into two groups: the first unites nearly all the Devescovinidae including Caduceia and the Calonymphidae Coronympha and Metacoronympha, whereas the second group is composed of a few Devescovinidae, Lophomonadida, and Calonymphidae such as Stephanonympha. Caduceia is closely related to Devescovina, corroborating the marked morphological similarity between these two genera whereas Stephanonympha groups together with the Calonymphidae Snyderella and Calonympha. These data also confirm the polyphyly of the families Devescovinidae and Calonymphidae and support the arrangement of the axostyle–pelta complexes as a valuable character for taxonomic considerations within the Calonymphidae.