ABSTRACT. Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite originally described from Apis cerana, has been found to infect Apis melllifera and is highly pathogenic to its new host. In the present study, data on the ultrastructure of N. ceranae, presence of N. ceranae-specific nucleic acid in host tissues, and phylogenetic relationships with other microsporidia species are described. The ultrastructural features indicate that N. ceranae possesses all of the characteristics of the genus Nosema. Spores of N. ceranae measured approximately 4.4 × 2.2 μm on fresh smears. The number of coils of the polar filament inside spores was 18–21. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) signals specific for N. ceranae were detected not only in the primary infection site, the midgut, but also in the tissues of hypopharyngeal glands, salivary glands, Malpighian tubules, and fat body. The detection rate and intensity of PCR signals in the fat body were relatively low compared with other examined tissues. Maximum parsimony analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that N. ceranae appeared to be more closely related to the wasp parasite, Nosema vespula, than to N. apis, a parasite infecting the same host.