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Low-Temperature Sintering of Lead Zinc Niobate–Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Using Nano-Sized Powder Prepared by the Stirred Media Milling Process


  • H. Chan—contributing editor

†Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail:


Lead zinc niobate–lead zirconate titanate (PZN–PZT) nano-sized powders with a diameter of ∼35 nm were fabricated by a high-energy stirred media mill using 50 μm diameter zirconia beads as the milling media at a rotation speed of 4000 rpm for 1 h. The sintering temperature of PZN–PZT was greatly reduced, and a fully densified bulk body was obtained at only 750°C when stirred media milled nanopowder was used. The control of evaporation of lead oxide was very important to obtain high electrical properties due to the increased surface area of nano-sized powders. The ferroelectric hysteresis, piezoelectric d33 coefficient, and dielectric properties of sintered ceramics using nanopowder were measured and compared with the values obtained from a sintered specimen using conventional milled powders. Remanent polarization, d33 coefficient, and relative dielectric constant of 750°C sintered stirred media milled powders containing 2% of excess PbO and 1% of 4PbO–B2O3 liquid phase were 10.3 μC/cm2, 277 pC/N, and 1310, respectively.

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