Surface Composition and Imprint in CSD-Based PZT Films


  • M. Kuwabara—contributing editor

  • This investigation was supported by the MOEMS Consortium of the Israel Ministry of Industry and Trade and Technion's fund for the promotion of research. Additional support is from the Center for Adsorption in Science of the Ministry of Immigrant Absorption State of Israel and in part by a joint grant from the Committee for Planning and Budgeting of the Council for Higher Education under the framework of the KAMEA and GILADI Programs.

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Reports on PZT films often suggest the contradicting presence of Pb-deficient pyrochlore (Py) and a Pb-rich layer on the surface. We show that standard Ar+ ion sputtering X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles of PZT films artificially exhibit a Pb-rich surface, independent of actual Pb content of the chemical solution deposition solution. However angle-resolved XPS measurements reveal that films derived from solutions with 10% Pb excess, which give rise to Py surface grains, actually have the expected Pb-deficient surface layer. Alternatively, films derived from solutions with 30% Pb excess are Py free and have Pb-rich surface layer. The Pb-rich films show an increased imprint effect with increasing Pb content.