Crystallization of Pb((Zn,Mg)1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 Thin Films Via Immobilization of Pb2+ Ions During Sol–Gel Process

Authors

  • Zehui Du,

    1. Temasek laboratories, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 639798 Singapore, Singapore
    2. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 639798 Singapore, Singapore
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  • Minmin Zhu,

    1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 639798 Singapore, Singapore
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  • Tianshu Zhang,

    1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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  • Jan Ma

    Corresponding author
    1. Temasek laboratories, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 639798 Singapore, Singapore
    2. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 639798 Singapore, Singapore
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  • D. Damjanovic—contributing editor

  • This work was financially supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, U.S.A.).

†Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: asjma@ntu.edu.sg

Abstract

In this work, a modified sol–gel process using a crown ether, 18-crown-6 (18C6) as complexing agent to synthesize 0.77(0.6Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3–0.4Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3))–0.23PbTiO3(PZMN–PT) thin films is reported. With the addition of 18C6, perovskite phase directly crystallized from the amorphous films at a temperature as low as 460°C and the crystallinity was significantly enhanced. The promotion of 18C6 on perovskite formation can be attributed to the immobilization of Pb2+ ions, which facilitates the columbite-like crystallization route. The pure-perovskite films obtained by annealing at 460°C exhibit the optical and electrical properties comparable to literature data. Our studies therefore indicate a general approach by using crown ethers as complexing agent to synthesize the thermodynamically unstable ferroelectric materials, such as PMN- and PZN-based systems.

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