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Formation of Orthorhombic and Multiferroic Hexagonal Phases from an Undercooled RMnO3 (R=Rare-Earth Element) Melt Using a Containerless Technique

Authors

  • Malahalli Shankaregowda Vijaya Kumar,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan
      †Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: vijaya.kumar@jaxa.jp
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  • Nami Higaki,

    1. Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
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  • Kazuhiko Kuribayashi,

    1. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan
    2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548, Japan
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  • Taketoshi Hibiya,

    1. Graduate School of System Design and Management, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8526, Japan
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  • Shinichi Yoda

    1. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan
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  • X. M. Chen—contributing editor

  • This work was financially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

†Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: vijaya.kumar@jaxa.jp

Abstract

Containerless solidification of the undercooled RMnO3 melt was carried out to study the formation of orthorhombic and hexagonal phases under controlled oxygen partial pressure. The o-RMnO3 (R=La to Gd) perovskite with a space group of Pbnm and h-RMnO3 (R=Dy to Lu) with a space group of P63cm were solidified from an undercooled melt atinline image=105 Pa. The RMnO3 samples showed the undercooling of 230–380 K atinline image=105 Pa. The surface morphologies changed from rough spherical to a smooth faceted planes with a decreasing ionic radius from La (0.1032 nm) to Lu (0.0861 nm). X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy results showed the existence of o-RMnO3 and h-RMnO3. Thermodynamic stabilities of the as-solidified phases were studied at 105 Pa; as a result, the hexagonal phases changed to orthorhombic for the DyMnO3 and HoMnO3 systems after annealing at 1673 K. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis results, oxygen deficiency, bulk composition, and tolerance factor were calculated.

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