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The phenomenal increase during the past decade in research utilizing pulsed electric current to activate sintering is attributed generally to the intrinsic advantages of the method relative to conventional sintering methods and to the observations of the enhanced properties of materials consolidated by this method. This review focuses on the fundamental aspects of the process, discussing the reported observations and simulation studies in terms of the basic aspects of the process and identifying the intrinsic benefits of the use of the parameters of current (and pulsing), pressure, and heating rate.