EuFeO3 (EFO) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method with an aid of tartaric acid at different calcination temperatures. The prepared EFO samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis–thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum, N2 adsorption/desorption measurements, and photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The calcination temperature for the highest photocatalytic activity of the EFO nanoparticles was found to be 750°C. Much enhanced photocatalytic activity was observed when adding a small amount of H2O2 during the photocatalysis, indicating EFO nanoparticles have photo-Fenton-like catalytic activity. EFO nanoparticles were further demonstrated to have an excellent photocatalytic stability, which is useful for the efficient recovery of photocatalyst.