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The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Properties of LTCC Material


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In this work the effect of firing temperature and firing time on the phase composition, microstructure, biaxial flexural strength, and temperature coefficient of expansion (TCE) of low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) material is presented. At temperatures around 700°C the Al2O3 starts to dissolve in a low viscosity glass phase and this takes place up to 800°C, when 10 wt% of Al2O3 ceramic filler is dissolved in the glass phase forming the alumina-enriched area. This area is suitable for the crystallization of anorthite, which nucleates on the Al2O3 particles. The crystallization starts at 875°C and the mass fraction of anorthite increases with increasing temperature until it reaches a plateau value of around 22 wt% at higher temperatures or longer firing times. The biaxial flexural strength of the LTCC increases with increasing firing temperature from 135 MPa (at 800°C) to around 300 MPa (at 900°C). The major effect on the biaxial flexural strength of LTCC is that of porosity. The effect of the amount of anorthite on the LTCC biaxial flexural strength is minor. The TCE of the LTCC decreases from 5.6 × 10−6 to 5.0 × 10−6 K−1 with increasing firing temperatures or times and it is correlated with the anorthite mass fraction, which crystallizes at the expense of a decreasing amount of glass phase in the LTCC.