Li-Rich Vapor Transport Equilibration Temperature Dependence of Surface Composition of Initially Congruent LiNbO3 Crystal

Authors

  • De-Long Zhang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology, Ministry of Education (Tianjin University), Tianjin, China
    2. Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    • Department of Opto-Electronics and Information Engineering, School of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
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  • Zhen Wang,

    1. Department of Opto-Electronics and Information Engineering, School of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology, Ministry of Education (Tianjin University), Tianjin, China
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  • Ping-Rang Hua,

    1. Department of Opto-Electronics and Information Engineering, School of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology, Ministry of Education (Tianjin University), Tianjin, China
    3. Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
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  • Edwin Yue-Bun Pun

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: dlzhang@tju.edu.cn

Abstract

The influence of Li-rich vapor transport equilibration (VTE) on surface Li2O-content of 1-mm-thick, congruent X-, and Z-cut LiNbO3 crystal plates was studied against the VTE temperature. The VTE-induced surface Li2O-content increase was evaluated from measured birefringence. The results show that the increase follows the traditional Arrhenius law with a surface Li2O-content alteration constant (614 ± 136)/(91 ± 10) mol% and an activation energy (0.76 ± 0.05)/(0.53 ± 0.03) eV for the X/Z-cut plate. An empirical expression that correlates the VTE-induced surface Li2O-content alteration with both the VTE temperature and duration is presented. The expression is useful for producing a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 plate with the desired surface Li2O-content via balancing the VTE temperature and duration.

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