High Power Characteristics of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics


Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: soz1@psu.edu


High power characteristics of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3 (BNT) and BaTiO3 (BT)-based piezoceramics were investigated and compared to commercial “hard” Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 PZT materials. Acceptor-modified BNT and BT-based ceramics showed typical “hardening” characteristics, exhibiting high mechanical quality factor Qm > 800 and low dielectric loss, <0.01, comparable to “hard” PZT ceramics. Of particular significance is that BNT-based ceramics were found to exhibit minimal variation of resonance frequency shift and high Qm under high level vibration velocity, being ~0.6% and ~800 at 0.25 m/s, respectively, due to the high domain stability associated with their high coercive fields, being on the order of 35 kV/cm.