The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning
Article first published online: 6 JUL 2010
Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Special Issue: 2009 Rumelhart Prize Special Issue Honoring Susan Carey
Volume 34, Issue 5, pages 776–806, July 2010
How to Cite
Williams, J. J. and Lombrozo, T. (2010), The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning. Cognitive Science, 34: 776–806. doi: 10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01113.x
- Issue published online: 6 JUL 2010
- Article first published online: 6 JUL 2010
- Received 15 June 2009; received in revised form 19 December 2009; accepted 28 December 2009
- Category learning;
Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments provide evidence for the subsumptive constraints account: prompting participants to explain while learning artificial categories promotes the induction of a broad generalization underlying category membership, relative to describing items (Exp. 1), thinking aloud (Exp. 2), or free study (Exp. 3). Although explaining facilitates discovery, Experiment 1 finds that description is more beneficial for learning item details. Experiment 2 additionally suggests that explaining anomalous observations may play a special role in belief revision. The findings provide insight into explanation’s role in discovery and generalization.