• Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Anthony, T., Copper, C., & Mullen, B. (1992). Cross-racial facial identification: A social cognitive integration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 296301.
  • Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R. M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own race face processing. Psychological Science, 17, 159163.
    Direct Link:
  • Bonner, L., Burton, A. M., & Bruce, V. (2003). Getting to know you: How we learn new faces. Visual Cognition, 10, 527536.
  • Bothwell, R. K., Brigham, J. C., & Malpass, R. S. (1989). Cross-racial identification. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 1925.
  • Brainard, D. H. (1997). The psychophysics toolbox. Spatial Vision, 10, 433436.
  • Caldara, R., Schyns, P., Mayer, E., Smith, M., Gosselin, F., & Rossion, B. (2005). Does prosopagnosia take the eyes out of face representations? Evidence for a defect in representing diagnostic facial information following brain damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 16521666.
  • Chiroro, P., & Valentine, T. (1995). An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own race bias in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 879894.
  • Farah, M. J., Wilson, K. D., Drain, M., & Tanaka, J. N. (1998). What is “special” about face perception? Psychological Review, 105(3), 482498.
  • Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. (1997). Becoming a “Greeble” expert: Exploring mechanisms for face recognition. Vision Research, 37, 16731682.
  • Gauthier, I., & Tarr, M. J. (2002). Unraveling mechanisms for expert object recognition: Bridging brain activity and behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 431446.
  • Gauthier, I., Tarr, M. J., Anderson, A., & Gore, J. (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform “face area” increases with experience in recognizing novel objects. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 568573.
  • Gauthier, I., Williams, P., Tarr, M. J., & Tanaka, J. (1998). Training “Greeble” experts: A framework for studying expert object recognition processes. Vision Research, 38, 24012428.
  • Golby, A. J., Gabrieli, J. D., Chao, J. Y., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2001). Differential responses in the fusiform region to same-race and other-race faces. Nature Neuroscience, 4(8), 845850.
  • Hugenberg, K., Miller, J., & Claypool, H. M. (2007). Categorization and individuation in the cross-race recognition deficit: Toward a solution to an insidious problem Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 334340.
  • Itier, R. J., Alain, C., Sedore, K., & McIntosh, A. R. (2007). Early face processing specificity: It’s in the eyes! Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 18151826.
  • Lebrecht, S., Pierce, L. J., Tarr, M. J., & Tanaka, J. W. (2009). Perceptual other-race training reduces implicit racial bias. PLoS ONE, 4, e4215.
  • Levin, D. T. (1996). Classifying faces by race: The structure of face categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 13641382.
  • Levin, D. T. (2000). Race as a visual feature: Using visual search and perceptual discrimination tasks to understand face categories and cross-race recognition deficit. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 559574.
  • MacLin, O. H., Van Sickler, B. R., MacLin, M. K., & Li, A. (2004). A re-examination of the cross race effect: The role of race, inversion and basketball trivia. North American Journal of Psychology, 6, 189204.
  • Malpass, R. S., & Kravitz, J. (1969). Recognition for faces of own- and other-race faces. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 13, 330334.
  • Meissner, C. A., & Brigham, J. C. (2001). Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review. Psychology, Public Policy & Law, 7, 335.
  • Ng, W., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (1994). Cross-race facial recognition: Failure of the contact hypothesis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25, 217232.
  • Nishimura, M., & Maurer, D. (2008). The effect of categorisation on sensitivity to second order relations in novel objects. Perception, 37, 584601.
  • O’Donnell, C., & Bruce, V. (2001). Familiarisation with faces selectively enhances sensitivity to changes made to the eyes. Perception, 30, 755764.
  • O’Toole, A. J., Deffenbacher, K. A., Valentin, D., & Abdi, H. (1994). Structural aspects of face recognition and the other-race effect. Memory & Cognition, 22, 208224.
  • Pelli, D. G. (1997). The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into movies. Spatial Vision, 10, 437442.
  • Richler, J. J., Tanaka, J. W., Brown, D. D., & Gauthier, I. (2008). Why does selective attention to parts fail in face processing? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34(6), 13561368.
  • Rosch, E., Mervis, C. B., Gray, W. D., Johnson, D. M., & Boyes-Braem, P. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 382439.
  • Rossion, B., Kung, C. C., & Tarr, M. J. (2004). Visual expertise with nonface objects leads to competition with the early perceptual processing of faces in human occipitotemporal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 1452114526.
  • Sangrigoli, S., Pallier, C., Argenti, A. M., Ventureyra, V. A., & de Schonen, S. (2005). Reversibility of the other-race effect in face recognition during childhood. Psychological Sciences, 16, 440444.
  • Scott, L. S., Tanaka, J. W., Sheinberg, D. L., & Curran, T. (2006). A reevaluation of the electrophysiological correlates of expert object processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 14531465.
  • Scott, L. S., Tanaka, J. W., Sheinberg, D. L., & Curran, T. (2008). The role of category learning in the acquisition and retention of perceptual expertise: A behavioral and neurophysiological study. Brain Research, 1210, 204215.
  • Sekuler, A. B., Gaspar, C. M., Gold, J. M., & Bennett, P. J. (2004). Inversion leads to quantitative, not qualitative, changes in face processing. Current Biology, 14, 391396.
  • Tanaka, J. W., Curran, T., & Sheinberg, D. (2005). The training and transfer of real world perceptual expertise. Psychological Science, 16, 145151.
    Direct Link:
  • Tanaka, J. W., Kiefer, M., & Bukach, C. M. (2004). A holistic account of the own-race effect in face recognition: Evidence from a cross-cultural study. Cognition, 93, 19.
  • Tanaka, J. W., & Pierce, L. (2009). The neural plasticity of other-race face recognition. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 122131.
  • Walker, P. M., & Tanaka, J. W. (2003). An encoding advantage for own-race versus other race faces. Perception, 32, 11171125.
  • Wong, A. C.-N., Palmeri, T. J., & Gauthier, I. (2009). Conditions for face-like expertise with objects: Becoming a Ziggerin expert—but which type? Psychological Science, 20, 11081117.
    Direct Link:
  • Young, A. W., Hellawell, D., & Hay, D. C. (1987). Configurational information in face perception. Perception, 16(6), 747759.